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Title: Eurozone Enlargement
Title (other): Exploring Uncharted Waters
Abstract
The paper summarises the outcomes of a research project on 'The Eastward Enlargement of the Eurozone' that has been, since 2001, conducted by leading research institutions from Estonia, Finland, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovenia, coordinated by the Freie Universität Berlin's Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence. The project was supported by the European Commission's 5th Framework Programme. The report draws on the research that has been laid down in a set of working papers and several books, analyses impacts on markets and policies, and assesses the changes that have occurred so far. It also discusses what impact enlargement will have on the eurozone as a whole, its capacity to act, and on institutional consequences. On 1 May 2004, ten countries joined the European Union. The new members are Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. Enlargement increased the EU population to 450 million, making the EU the world's largest single market in population terms. A market of this size can be expected to give a boost to investment and job creation, raising levels of prosperity throughout Europe. Enlargement will, however, create new challenges: the Central and East European countries (CEEC) may take decades to catch up economically with their western neighbours unless adequate assistance from the old member countries is being provided. Thus, the success of enlargement depends both on the speed of the process and on the procedure how to implement the right political and economic mechanisms towards sustainable self-financed growth. This process may even be aggravated by the eurozone's eastward enlargement which strips the CEEC of monetary policy independence and the application of traditional economic instruments. [Urheber s. Copyright]
Author: Bolle, Michael
Contributer: Ezoneplus Research Consortium
Year: 2004
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EU expansionmonetary policyEast Central Europe
Subject: European Community financial managementDemand. Market. ConsumptionMonetary agreements and zones. International debt
Countries Scheme: EASTERN EUROPE
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Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Ezoneplus Research Consortium (http://www.ezoneplus.org/)
Title: Central and Eastern Europe in the 2004 European Parliament Elections
Title (other): A Not So European Event
Abstract
The first European Parliament elections in the new member states in Central and Eastern Europe demonstrated a profound paradox in terms of being a feedback process of European integration. At the elite level, the accession to the European Union has offered political parties and their leaders both new opportunities as well as a new set of issues with the emergence of a significant divide over the meanings of European integration. At the mass level, however, the first European Parliament elections were ignored by a vast majority of voters. This paper serves as a systematic analysis of the subject. Its objective is three-fold: to explain a lack of interest in the polls, to examine the domestic political dynamics leading to the elections and to consider the implications of the elections for the workings of the enlarged European Union. As for the prospects for European integration, it is important to note that one may no longer assume a supportive cross-party consensus in the new member states on the EU. Rather, popular antipathy towards the EU is expected to rise. [Urheber s. Copyright]
Author: Chan, Kenneth
Series Title: SEI Working Paper ; 81 | EPERN Working Paper ; 16
Publisher: Sussex European Institute | European Parties Elections and Referendums Network EPERN
Year: 2004
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EU expansionEuropean integrationEast Central Europeparliamentary election
Subject: European Community institutionsElections. Electoral law
Countries Scheme: EASTERN EUROPE
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Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Sussex European Institute (http://www.sussex.ac.uk/sei/)
Title: Les marchés boursiers en Europe centrale
Abstract
The securities markets in central and eastern Europe are small: the capitalisation in domestic shares in the 10 acceding countries represents barely 4 per cent of the capitalisation in Euronext. The capitalisation of these markets as share of the gross domestic product is still weak. However, the number of companies in the central and eastern European stock exchanges is equivalent to those in many of the EU member states and these companies have access to an important source of finance in the stock exchange. These markets primarily finance a certain number of companies that are very important for the local economy but too small to have effective access to capital in EU markets. The preservation of stock markets in central and eastern Europe is therefore desirable, even if entry into the European Union and implementation of the new European financial directives could seriously worsen their competitive environment. [Urheber s. Copyright]
Author: Cochard, Sébastien
Series Title: Revue Elargissement / Spécial Bourses ; 40
Contributer: French Ministry of Economy, Finance and Industry Department for External Economic Relations
Year: 2004
Language: fr
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: stock exchangeEU expansioncapital marketCentral Europe
Subject: European Community financial managementInvestment returns. Financial market. Interest ratesInternational investments. Capital movements
Countries Scheme: EASTERN EUROPE
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Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: French Ministry of Economy, Finance and Industry - Department for External Economic Relations (http://www.mi
Title: How Different is Eastern Europe?
Title (other): Structure and determinants of location choices by French firms in Eastern and Western Europe
Abstract
The paper examines the determinants of location choices of French multinational firms in eastern and western Europe. The sample includes 1,843 location choices in 19 countries over the years 1980-1999. The results suggest there might be important differences between the two regions of Europe concerning these determinants. Noticeably, agglomeration effects are less strong in central and eastern European countries than in European Union countries. Location decisions are significantly and positively influenced by the institutional quality of the host country. The paper also investigates whether investors consider western Europe and eastern Europe as two distinct groups of potential host countries. It confirms the relevance of an east-west structure in the country location decision and also show that the relevance of this structure decreases as the transition process advances. [Urheber s. Copyright]
Author: Disdier, Anne-Célia | Mayer, Thierry
Series Title: CEPII / Working Paper; 13,2003
Publisher: Centre d'Études Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales
Year: 2003
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: investment abroadEU expansionFranceEastern Europelocation factors
Subject: History of the European Communities. European ideaEconomic conditions. Economic structureLocation of industry
Countries Scheme: EASTERN EUROPEFrance
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Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Centre d'Études Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales (http://www.cepii.fr/)
Title: Positions of 10 Central and Eastern European countries on EU institutional reforms:
Title (other): Analytical survey in the framework of the CEEC-DEBATE project
Abstract
The paper analyses the national debate on the future of Europe in the candidate countries from Central and Eastern Europe. The positions taken by representatives of governments and national parliaments at the European Convention show that divergences in the EU integration process do not occur between new and older Member States, but in relation to the interests of each country. All Central and Eastern European countries argue for maintaining and reinforcing the community method, which would strengthen their political power and allow defending their interests in international fora. They are mostly concerned about the role and representation of small and medium sized countries in an enlarged EU. It is not possible to consider the 10 Central European countries as a homogenous group. Each country has its own political and strategic preferences and interests. At the same time, official positions of most Central European governments are similar on guiding principles such as the wish of preserving the institutional balance, maintaining the current number of institutions and ensuring more openness and transparency. On the institutions, national positions represent many similarities such as rejection of the idea of a permanent President of the European Council (with the exception of Poland) and a support for team presidency (e.g. Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia). Basically all of the applicant countries follow the same line of argumentation and their representatives have participated in common initiatives, such as the "group of 16", a joint initiative of 16 smaller and medium Member States and candidates for accession on the reform of institutions. In some cases, positions have been modelled according to or got inspired from national positions of some of the current Member States. To illustrate, the Bulgarian and the Czech proposals are very close to the Belgian position. Like some current EU Member States, including Austria, Sweden and Finland, the countries that last joined the EU
Author: Franck, Christian | Pyszna-Nigge, Dorota
Publisher: Université Catholique
Year: 2003
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EU expansionintegration policyconventionEast Central Europeconstitution
Subject: History of the European Communities. European ideaEuropean Community institutions and organsPolitical science in generalSocial structure. Social conditions. Social change
Countries Scheme: EASTERN EUROPE
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Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Université Catholique ; TEPSA (http://www.tepsa.be/)
Title: A new Visegrad Group in the new European Union - possibilities and opportunities for development
Title (other): Nowa Grupa Wyszehradzka w nowej Unii Europejskiej – szanse i mozliwosci rozwoju
Abstract
Today, just as Europe is about to expand through the accession of new members such as Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and six other countries, it is clearer than ever that the Visegrad Four's mission has not come to an end but is gaining new dimensions. The Visegrad Group has fulfilled the tasks that it set itself when it was established. It is advisable to lay out new tasks, suitable for the group's operation in the new European reality - following the EU accession of Visegrad countries in May 2004. The tasks faced by the Visegrad countries in the EU will require co-operation, exchange of information and openness between partners. Preparations for facing these tasks must begin now - open discussions regarding the Visegrad Group's future must be held within the region, priorities clearly defined, long- and short-term goals indicated and included in the new Visegrad Declaration. If we fail to do this, the Visegrad will almost certainly limit itself to meetings of politicians in central European castles, as Czech President Vaclav Klaus sees it. It is in the best interest of the central European region not to let this happen. [Urheber s. Copyright]
Author: Bukalska, Patrycja
Publisher: Osrodek Studiów Wschodnich
Year: 2003
Language: en | pol
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EU expansionEuropean integrationEast Central EuropePoland
Subject: History of the European Communities. European ideaEuropean Community external relations
Countries Scheme: EASTERN EUROPESOUTHERN EUROPE
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Title: Looking after the neighbourhood: responsibilities for EU 25
Abstract
The enlarged European Union will be surrounded, from Russia to Morocco, with states economically dependent on access to its markets, concerned about cross-border travel and trade, and anxious for their voices to be heard in EU negotiations. Since 1989, West European governments have successfully extended their established zone of peace, prosperity and security across Central and Eastern Europe, through the promise of enlargement linked to fulfilment of political, economic and administrative conditions. Promises of membership have already been made to further states in southeast Europe. If the EU is not to drift into offering membership to more and more states around the Mediterranean and across Eurasia, it needs a strategy to organise its neighbourhood, which offers neighbouring states incentives to co-operate and all possible advantages short of membership. Within the current EU there is no consensus on priorities to be given to the Eastern or Southern neighbours, or on the trade or financial incentives, which should be offered. The Commission and the Council Secretariat have floated various proposals in recent months, which the Council of Ministers has received without evident enthusiasm. Many sensitive issues are involved, from border control and migration to further opening of the EU market to imports of agricultural products, textiles and steel; financial incentives would also require a substantial increase in the EU budget allocation for 'external action'. Existing policies towards the Mediterranean and the CIS states provide a framework on which to build; but member governments should recognise the limited success of these policies so far, and the resentment and frustration of many of the 'partner' states at their continued dependence. Development of a coherent neighbourhood policy will thus entail substantial costs. But it also offers substantial benefits, in extending prosperity, democracy and security beyond the EU's borders. The cost of protecting the EU-25 from the spillover of refugees, illegal ac
Author: Wallace, William
Series Title: Notre Europe / Policy Papers ; 4
Publisher: Groupement d'Etudes et de Recherches Notre Europe
Year: 2003
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EU expansionEuropean integrationsecurity policyeconomic policy
Subject: European Community external relations
Countries Scheme: NORTHERN EUROPEEASTERN EUROPESOUTHERN EUROPEASIA and MIDDLE EAST
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Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Groupement d'Etudes et de Recherches Notre Europe (http://www.notre-europe.asso.fr/)
Title: The impact of EU enlargement
Abstract
Most multinational investors in Central and Eastern Europe acknowledge that EU expansion will affect their business, but very few have made any budget provision to cover the cost of enlargement. In addition, most companies are only now starting to prepare for the changes that EU enlargement will bring. These are some of the findings of a pan-European survey commissioned by PricewaterhouseCoopers to determine to what extent, if any, companies are preparing for EU enlargement on May 1, 2004. The survey covered 100 of the major investors in Central and Eastern Europe and was conducted across a range of industry sectors. The majority of respondents (89%) confirmed that EU enlargement will affect their business and they need to prepare for the changes. However, two-thirds of the companies that responded to the survey have only started or will only start considering the effects of enlargement and preparing for them this year. 86% of the companies have provided no budget to manage preparation for enlargement. Only 7% of companies have put aside 50,000 euros or more. A regional approach is being adopted by the majority of companies (68%) in preparing for EU enlargement. This reflects not only the cost-effectiveness of preparing on a regional basis but also that the likeliest areas for restructuring are in logistics and distribution. With the removal of internal customs borders, companies can much more easily implement regional or pan-European warehousing systems, as happened with the introduction of the single market in the EU after 1993. Almost 20% of the respondents thought that their company structure would change because of accession, with half of those believing middle management will become more centralised, while 25% of say they foresee greater decentralisation. The greatest perceived changes will be in taxation, particularly indirect tax, and in accounting and reporting systems. This is reflected in the job functions of those responsible for preparing for accession, with 61% of the respondents being either
Author: Keaty, G.
Publisher: PriceWaterhouseCoopers
Year: 2003
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EU expansionEast Central Europecompany policy
Subject: History of the European Communities. European ideaEconomic and growth policiesBusiness management. Company activity
Countries Scheme: EASTERN EUROPE
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Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: PriceWaterhouseCoopers (http://pwcglobal.com/)
Title: Profile of the Visegrád Countries in the Future of Europe Debate
Abstract
Although the Visegrád Four countries often defended the same or similar positions in the European Convention, their views differed on many important issues. This situation is likely to be repeated at the upcoming Intergovernmental Conference. This basically confirms the tendency that can be traced back to the EU accession negotiations or the Iraq crisis. There, no substantial co-ordination occurred either. Given this, we can hardly expect the Visegrád countries to act as a compact block inside the EU. In some areas the interests of the Visegrád Four countries will converge, for instance concerning the communitarisation of large portions of the current IIIrd pillar, the restoring and keeping of strong transatlantic ties in the area of security and defence or the intensification of relations with the EU's immediate neighbourhood. In this respect, the Visegrád group will be supported by other countries in the region, especially Austria and Slovenia. A certain harmonisation of 'Central European' positions goes well beyond the Visegrád co-operation and encompasses other entities like the Central European Free Trade Agreement or the Central European Initiative. [Urheber s. Copyright]
Author: Král, David
Publisher: Institut pro Evropskou Politiku Europeum
Year: 2003
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EU expansionPolandSlovakiaCzech RepublicHungary
Subject: International relationsHistory of the European Communities. European ideaEuropean Community external relations
Countries Scheme: EASTERN EUROPE
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Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Institut pro Evropskou Politiku Europeum (http://www.europeum.org/)
Title: Winning strategies for locally-owned businesses in Central Europe
Abstract
The study, "Winning strategies for locally-owned businesses in Central Europe", looks at how locally-owned businesses in the candidate countries are preparing for EU enlargement. It describes the emerging opportunities and challenges facing local firms and assesses what more they can do to succeed in an enlarged Europe, based on interviews with senior executives in leading local firms in Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Latvia as well as members of the banking community and policy makers. The key conclusions are that: Many locally-owned firms in the candidate countries of Central Europe need to adopt more forward looking strategies which move beyond cost-minimisation if they are to succeed in an enlarged EU. Many of the strategies of local firms are not yet adequately geared to generating a sustainable source of competitive advantage: they are too focused on cost-reduction. If local firms are to thrive in an enlarged EU, they need to become more flexible, innovative and work more closely with others to add value. Many locally-owned firms in the candidate countries have already taken steps to improve their efficiency, in part as a response to increased competition from foreign companies in both domestic and international markets. Formal accession to the EU in May 2004 is unlikely to generate significant additional export opportunities in the EU market for locally-owned firms. [Urheber s. Copyright]
Series Title: New Europe: New Challenges, New Opportunities
Author (Corp. Body): PriceWaterhouseCoopers
Year: 2003
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EU expansionCentral Europecompany policy
Subject: History of the European Communities. European ideaEconomic policy and planningEconomic development. Economic growth
Countries Scheme: EASTERN EUROPE
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Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: PriceWaterhouseCoopers (http://www.pwc.com/)
Title: Debate on the new EU cohesion policy: Recommendations for the Polish position
Abstract
Basic assumptions of the EU's new cohesion policy for the years 2007-2013 will be probably worked out by the end of 2003. Based on the current debate, one may assume that they will not contain any breakthrough changes. Corrections to the existing system might include introduction of transition periods for regions which for statistical reasons will no longer be eligible for structural assistance. The future cohesion policy will probably proceed in two principal directions. One will primarily encompass assistance to regions whose economy is lagging behind with a view to achieving a greater cohesion on the territory of the European Union. The other will be increasingly involved with the implementation of the Lisbon strategy, particularly with the development of knowledge-based economy and achievement of the so-called sustainable development. It is highly probable that the cohesion policy will be somewhat decentralised in favour of individual countries and regions. Key decisions in this area will be taken by the present member states before Poland joins the EU. Still, since Poland is the largest country among the new members of the enlarged Union, its voice would certainly be heard during the decision-making process. One should bear in mind that the new regional policy will be operating to a large extent precisely to serve Poland's developmental needs. This is why it is extremely important for the Polish government to join the debate on the shape of the new cohesion policy. [Urheber s. Copyright]
Author: Grosse, Tomasz Grzegorz | Olbrycht, Jan
Series Title: Analyses & Opinions; 10
Publisher: Instytut Spraw Publicznych
Year: 2003
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EU expansionPolandregional policystructural policyeconomic development (on national level)
Subject: History of the European Communities. European ideaEuropean Community funds and financial instruments. EIBEconomic development. Economic growth
Countries Scheme: EASTERN EUROPE
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Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Instytut Spraw Publicznych (http://www.isp.org.pl/)
Title: Will EU Money Be the Tune for New Members' Catch-Up Song?
Abstract
The new member states should not expect EU money to lead to miracles. The most important ingredients of catch-up growth are a stable macroeconomic framework; supply-side policies that help markets to adjust quickly; and a well-trained, flexible workforce. EU aid will only make a positive contribution to growth in the region if it is firmly integrated into such an environment. According to Eurostat figures, average per capita GDP in the 10 east European candidate countries now stands at around 40% of the EU average. The gap between the average EU income level and that of the candidate countries has widened considerably since 1989. The EU's real GDP grew by 30% between 1989 and 2002, whereas for the 10 East European accession countries the increase amounted to only 8% during the same period. Available evidence suggests quite strongly that the accession countries have followed the pattern of the Mediterranean countries, in that recent economic growth has gone hand in hand with a marked widening of regional income differentials. The fastest growth has occurred in the regions centred on capital cities and in those geographically close to the EU. Smaller towns, rural areas, and the eastern parts of the accession countries have generally lagged behind, with poverty, high unemployment, and a lack of competitive industries characterising the regions along the EU's future eastern border with Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. If current trends continue, regional differences in the East European countries will continue to widen. There is therefore a prima facie case for the EU to concentrate its regional development efforts on the poorer, eastern regions of the new member states. Under current EU rules, regions with a per capita GDP of less than 75% of the EU average automatically qualify for EU regional aid under the so-called Objective 1 facility. This means that almost the entire area of all the east European countries will be eligible for EU aid. If the EU maintained the current extent of redistribution (net paymen
Author: Barysch, Katinka
Series Title: Transition / The World Bank
Publisher: World Bank Group
Year: 2003
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 1020-5470
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EU expansionmacroeconomicseconomic growth
Subject: History of the European Communities. European ideaEuropean Community funds and financial instruments. EIBEconomic and growth policies
Countries Scheme: EASTERN EUROPE
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Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: World Bank Group (http://www.worldbank.org/)
Title: Evaluation of Transport Projects in Central and Eastern Europe
Abstract
The report covers the European Investment Bank's (EIB) portfolio of completed transport projects in central and eastern Europe financed between 1990 and 1999, inclusive. During this period, the Bank financed 58 projects for a total disbursed amount of some u00804.9 billion. Of this, approximately 65% went to roads, 27% to railways, 6% to air transport and 2% to ports. The distribution between countries reflected their size, population and economic importance, with most funding going to the Czech Republic, Poland and Romania. All projects contributed significantly to the EU's key transport policy objectives, with a particular focus on infrastructure in urgent need of rehabilitation. Most of the ten projects examined in-depth were completed to specification, largely on time and on budget, with cost overruns of less than 15% of the original estimate. Only two projects suffered from much higher costs than forecast; attributable to a combination of inaccurate unit prices, latent road foundation problems and rampant domestic inflation. There were problems with bureaucratic and administrative delays in establishing guarantees, and procurement: delays of more than one year to the start of construction were not uncommon. The works were generally carried out to a high standard and should have a full working life if properly maintained. However, there are concerns that available funds for maintenance from central government may not be adequate, which would affect the sustainability of seven out of the ten projects. Nine out of the ten projects benefited from technical assistance, which was an EIB funding condition, and which facilitated the implementation of the projects. Five of these promoters, all in the roads sector, still rely on external assistance to implement EIB funded projects. Most of the projects were affected by significant changes in the pattern of transport demand during the transition. However, the Bank's projections were normally closer to the real situation than the promoters'. In terms of overal
Series Title: Evaluation Report
Author (Corp. Body): European Investment Bank
Year: 2003
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EU expansioninfrastructureEast Central Europeroad networktransportation policy
Subject: History of the European Communities. European ideaEuropean Community funds and financial instruments. EIBTransport networks
Countries Scheme: EASTERN EUROPESOUTHERN EUROPE
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Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: European Investment Bank (http://bei.eu.int/)
Title: Schooling Quality in Eastern Europe
Title (other): Educational Production During Transition
Abstract
The study estimates educational production functions for seven eastern European transition countries, using student-level data for lower secondary education. The analysis several distinctive features. First, the countries can be divided into two groups, which share similar characteristics in their economic development, the properties of their schooling systems and the effects that the various factors have on student test scores. The first group of countries, which includes the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia and Slovenia, commenced the political and economic reforms earlier than the second group and features a higher level of both political and economic development. In the second group, the Baltic States instead remained under tight Russian control until 1991 and suffered great economic damage from this strong link. Romania's political struggles delayed reforms. The findings of this paper carry implications for the potential future development of the transition countries' economies. The students tested have by now reached an age of about 21 and are about to enter the labour market. The measured schooling quality is thus to take effect on the countries' economies in the coming years. Besides the relatively advantageous economic and political situation, the first group of transition countries also presides over well functioning schooling systems. The high development of institutions is visible in the favourable incentive system in schools, where decentralisation has widely progressed and positively affects student scores. Coming entrants into the labour markets are well educated, which should make them competitive to the EU labour market. The quick transformation of the schooling system in the early years of transition despite the financial and political hurdles is a good foundation for economic growth in the coming years. However, the high spread of test scores and the differentiation of students according to their background may result in a higher inequality of income. A higher spread of income might be bene
Author: Ammermüller, Andreas | Heijke, Hans | Wößmann, Ludger
Series Title: Kiel Working Paper; 1154
Publisher: Institut für Weltwirtschaft
Year: 2003
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: level of vocational trainingEU expansionEastern Europeeducational achievement
Subject: History of the European Communities. European ideaLevels of educationNursery schools. Primary schools. Secondary schools
Countries Scheme: EASTERN EUROPE
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Title: EU Enlargement
Title (other): Costs, Benefits, and Strategies for Central and Eastern European Countries
Abstract
The accession of eight Central and Eastern European countries to the European Union in 2004 will bring some important benefits. The new members will gain from reduced barriers to trade and investment. By 2010, the movement of labour will also be freed. But accession to the EU is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for economic growth. The combined effects of market access and economic liberalisation, not EU membership, optimise economic growth. Unfortunately, the incoming EU members had to choose between the common market on the one hand and economic liberty on the other. Instead of concluding free-trade agreements with the EU, the Central and Eastern European countries were cajoled into an increasingly centralised superstate, in which most of their comparative advantages will be legislated out of existence. As a result, economic growth in Central and Eastern Europe will continue to be suboptimal. The loss of potential future economic growth will be only partly offset by the Central and Eastern European countries' access to the European single market. Following the collapse of communism, the Central and Eastern European countries searched for a quick way to prosperity, and EU accession seemed like a rational step forward. Unfortunately, the geopolitical aim of the European elites to rival the United States enjoys clear precedence over the developmental needs of the Central and Eastern European countries. Compliance with centralised EU regulations in three areas - labour, agriculture and the environment - will impose the most significant costs on the Central and Eastern European countries. Western European labour regulations will make many workers in the less-productive Central and Eastern European countries less competitive; agricultural subsidies will favour current EU members over future ones; and stringent environmental regulations will impose a cost of up to 120 billion euros on Central and Eastern European countries. Accession members should be wary of future EU initiatives, such as
Author: Tupy, Marian L.
Series Title: Policy Analysis; 489
Publisher: Cato Institute
Year: 2003
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: agricultural policyEU expansionfreedom of movementEast Central Europeeconomic growth
Subject: History of the European Communities. European ideaEconomic and growth policiesAgricultural policy. Agricultural development
Countries Scheme: EASTERN EUROPE
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Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Cato Institute (http://www.cato.org/)
Title: EU Enlargement and Power Asymmetries: Conditionality and the Commission's Role in Regionalisation in Central and Eastern
Europe
Abstract
Studies of EU conditionality assume a power asymmetry between the Commission and the CEECs over the adoption of the acquis, and at the macro level of democratisation and marketisation, rather than tracking clear causal relationships in policies. The article employs regional policy and regionalisation in the Central and Eastern European countries to challenge the 'conditionality model' and demonstrate its limitations. The research draws on interviews conducted with officials in the Commission and in Central and Eastern European countries delegations in Brussels to illustrate actor perceptions, and tracks policy differences within the Commission over time, to demonstrate and explain the weak impact of the Commission on regional policy and regionalisation in the Central and Eastern European countries. Inherent in the assumption that a power asymmetry characterises the enlargement process is the implication that it facilitates institutional convergence. The diverse pattern of regionalisation in the Central and Eastern European countries demonstrates the limitations to this notion of EU conditionality. Three key factors explain the divergence. Firstly, EU enlargement conditionality for the Central and Eastern European countries in the area of regional policy was implemented in a context of a spill-over of policy contestation within the Commission, where divisions over the regional policy reforms in 1988 and 1993 still resonated. Secondly, regional policy is a thin area of the acquis with sparse and ambiguous regulations. Thirdly, it is also an area under EU law where the national governments have a great deal of power to decide the institutional framework and means of implementation. Thus, whatever the competing policy preferences of the Commission, it lacked a repertoire of legal instruments to enforce a particular institutional design on the candidates, even if one existed. While the preferences of parts of the Commission for decentralisation informed the early stage of the enlargement process and strongly influ
Author: James Hughes, | Sasse, Gwendolyn | Gordon, Claire
Series Title: Working Paper ; 49/03 | ISSN 1468-4144
Publisher: Sussex European Institute
Year: 2003
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: democratizationEU expansionseparation of powersEast Central Europeregional policy
Subject: History of the European Communities. European ideaEuropean Community institutionsEuropean Community law in generalDevelopment plans. RegionsPolitical framework
Countries Scheme: EASTERN EUROPESOUTHERN EUROPE
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Sussex European Institute (http://www.one-europe.ac.uk/)
Title: The Eastern EU Neighbourhood : How to enhance the EU's partners ownership of the ENP
Abstract
The concept of the ENPs joint ownership is a basic approach of this policy. It is found in all strategic EU documents but is insufficiently researched so far. This paper aims at analyzing the concept against the EUs potential to act as a transformative power in its Eastern neighbourhood and focuses on the notions diverging interpretations by the EU (as a deliberative tool) and by its ENP partners (as part of hard give-and-take bargains). It asks if and to what degree the EU has proven the dominant partner in the ENP relationship with its Eastern neighbours (irrespective of joint ownership), and examines on which issues and how far the partner countries have managed to place their own interests on the common ENP agenda (on the basis of this principle). The text offers an insight into actor ownership of policy by emphasizing mostly the role of civil society in the ENP partners in the process of policy design and implementation, but also shedding light on the potential of other non-state actors. It makes several recommendations towards enhancing joint ownership in the future implementation and development of the ENP in the Eastern EU neighbourhood.[Krassimir Y. Nikolov]
Author: Krassimir, Y. Nikolov
Series Title:European Parliament - Briefing Paper
Publisher: Europäische Union / Europäisches Parlament
Year: 2007
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: PE 385.537
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Arbeitspapiere, Preprints
Keyword: Eastern Europeforeign policy
Subject: European Community external relations
Countries Scheme: EASTERN EUROPE
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäisches Parlament (http://www.europarl.europa.eu/)
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