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Title: European Ombudsman and national Ombudsmen or similar bodies: Comparative tables
Title (other): Le médiateur européen et les médiateurs nationaux ou organes similaires: Tableaux comparatifs
Abstract
Ce document vise à présenter, sous forme de tableaux synthétiques et schématiques, une vue d'ensemble des principales caractéristiques institutionnelles et fonctionnelles des Médiateurs nationaux (ou organes similaires) dans les États membres de l'Union européenne - ainsi que du Médiateur européen. Il a été préparé à la demande du Président de la commission des pétitions du Parlement européen et constitue la première mise à jour d?une étude précédente effectuée par la Direction générale des études en 1994 (une étude approfondie portant spécifiquement sur le droit d?adresser des pétitions aux assemblées parlementaires de l?Union européenne est en cours de préparation).[European Parliament]
Author: Crespo Allen, Marília
Series Title:European Parliament - Working Papers ; POLI 117
Publisher: Europäische Union / Europäisches Parlament | European Union / European Parliament
Year: 2001
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: PE 301.482
Language: en | fr
Ressource: Einzelne Arbeitspapiere, Preprints
Keyword: legal counselingarbiter jurisdiction
Subject: Law. Jurisprudence. Legal theoryCivil law in general
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäisches Parlament (http://www.europarl.europa.eu/)
Title: Study on the application of Council Regulation (EC) No 1348/2000 on the service of judicial and extra judicial documents
in civil or commercial matters
Table of Contents
1. Acknowledgements
2. Executive summary
3. The project
4. Study overview
4.1 Speed of transmission and service
4.2 Transmitting and receiving agencies
4.3 Central body
4.4 Forms
4.5 Informing addressee of right to refuse to accept a document
4.6 Date of service
4.7 Cost of service
4.8 Service by post
4.9 Direct service
5 Methodology
5.1 Methodology
5.2 Survey form
6 The results
6.1 Speed of transmission and service (Articles 4 and 7)
6.2 Transmitting and receiving agencies (Article 2)
6.3 Central body (Article 3)
6.4 Forms (Articles 4,6,7,8,10, Annexe)
6.5 Informing addressee of right to refuse to accept a document (Article 8)
6.6 Date of service (Article 9)
6.7 Cost of service (Article 11)
6.8 Service by post (Article 14)
6.9 Direct service (Article 15)
6.10 General narrative comments
6.11 Sensitivity analysis
7 Statistical data concerning the transmisssion and service of documents
7.1 Methodology
7.2 Survey form
7.3 The results
8 Referencies
Annex 1: List of E-mailaddresses used in the survey
Annex 2: Full set of literal narrative comments received
Author (Corp. Body): mainstrat
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Inneres
Year: 2004
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: servicedocumentCommercial Lawcivil law
Subject: European Community law in generalCivil law in generalCommercial law. Economic law
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://europa.eu.int/)
Title: Evaluation of the functioning of the European judical network in civil and commercial matters
Title (other): Final report
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
List of Abbreviations
1. SUMMARY
1.1. Summary of conclusions
1.2. Summary of Recommendations
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1. Description of the Network instrument
2.2. Purpose and scope of the evaluation
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1. Research design
3.1.1. Construction of the intervention logic
3.1.2. Methods of data collection and analysis
3.2. Analysis of collected data
4. EVALUATION RESULTS
4.1. Functioning of the Network
4.1.1. Internal coherence of objectives
4.1.2. Current set-up of the Network
4.1.3. The website
4.1.4. Contact points and organisation at national level
4.1.5. The meetings of contact points and Network members
4.1.6. CIRCA
4.1.7. Requests for judicial co-operation and their registration
4.1.8. Analysis on functioning of the Network
4.1.9. Conclusions on Network functioning
4.2. Interaction of the Network members and components
4.2.1. Coordination amongst national contact points and / or national networks
4.2.2. Role of Network members as intermediary vis- à -vis to ultimate users
4.2.3. Interaction with experts who monitor legislative work in civil law
4.2.4. Analysis on interaction of the Network members and components
4.2.5. Conclusions on interaction of the Network members and components
4.3. Results and impacts of the Network
4.3.1. Facilitation of relations between courts
4.3.2. Impacts of the Network related to judicial cooperation
4.3.3. Impacts of the Network related to the principle of mutual recognition
4.3.4. Impacts of the Network related to preparedness for entry into force of new instruments
4.3.5. Analysis on results and impacts of the Network
4.3.6. Conclusions on results and impacts of the Network
4.4. Coherence of external instruments
4.4.1. Analysis on coherence of external instruments
4.4.2. Conclusions on coherence of external instruments
4.5. Access to justice of legal professions and the
Author (Corp. Body): The European Evaluation Consortium TEEC
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Inneres
Year: 2005
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: JAI /C1/OT ge (2004)3065 | BUDG-02-01-L2
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: evaluationEuropeCommercial Lawnetworklawcivil law
Subject: European Community law in generalCivil law in generalCommercial law. Company law
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://europa.eu.int/)
Title: Study on the application of Council Regulation (EC) N° 1206/2001, on cooperation between the courts of the member
states in the taking of evidence in civil or commercial matter
Title (other): ANNEX I – Full answers received. Our Reference: FINAL_REPORT_1206_AnnexI_09032007
Table of Contents
QUESTIONNAIRES 1 AND 3 (GENERAL ONES)
QUESTIONNAIRE 2 (CENTRAL AUTHORITIES)
Author (Corp. Body): mainstrat
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Inneres
Year: 2007
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: courtCommercial Lawcivil law
Subject: European Community law in generalCivil law in generalCommercial law. Economic law
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Study on the application of Council Regulation (EC) N° 1206/2001, on cooperation between the courts of the member
states in the taking of evidence in civil or commercial matter
Title (other): ANNEX III – Questionnaires.Our Reference: FINAL_REPORT_1206_AnnexIII_09032007
Author (Corp. Body): mainstrat
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Inneres
Year: 2007
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: courtCommercial Lawcivil law
Subject: European Community law in generalCivil law in generalCommercial law. Economic law
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Study on the application of Council Regulation (EC) N° 1206/2001, on cooperation between the courts of the member
states in the taking of evidence in civil or commercial matter
Title (other): Our Reference: FINAL_REPORT_1206_A_09032007
Table of Contents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
2 FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY
2.1 CONTEXTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY. THE 1206/2001 REGULATION
2.1.1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
2.1.1.1 Binding all the Member States
2.1.2 THE CREATION OF AN AREA OF FREEDOM, SECURITY AND JUSTICE IN THE EU
2.2 THE CONTENT OF THE REGULATION
2.2.1 ADOPTION OF REGULATION 1206/2001 (“the Regulation”)
2.2.1.1 Relationship of Regulation 1206 with the European Judicial Network
2.2.1.2 Transitional measures and relationship with other regulatory instruments
2.2.2 SCOPE OF THE REGULATION
2.2.2.1 Introduction
2.2.2.2 Territorial scope
2.2.3 BRIEF ANALYSIS OF THE METHODS FOR TAKING OF EVIDENCE IN THE REGULATION
2.2.4 PURPOSE OF THE REGULATION. AN EX-ANTE EVALUATION
2.3 OUR TASK IN CURRENT STUDY
3 STUDY METHODOLOGY
3.1 METHODOLOGY
3.1.1 Objectives
3.1.2 Approach taken
3.1.2.1 Groups of Professionals
3.1.3 The Results
3.1.3.1 Targets for the Survey
3.1.3.2 Information-gathering procedure
3.2 THE TEAM FOR THE CURRENT STUDY
4 STUDY FINDINGS
4.1.1 Objectives of Regulation 1206/2001
4.1.2 Speed of obtaining evidence
4.1.3 Central bodies referred to in Article 3.1
4.1.3.1 Effectiveness of the central bodies
4.1.3.2 Participation of the central bodies
4.1.4 Competent authorities referred to in Article 3(3)
4.1.4.1 Conclusions
4.1.4.2 Proposals
4.1.5 The request: simplicity, clarity and legal certainty
4.1.6 Communications technology
4.1.6.1 Means of communication
4.1.6.2 The impact of communications technology
4.1.6.3 Use of the “swiftest possible means”
4.1.7 The economic cost of assistance
4.1.7.1 Conclusions
4.1.7.2 Proposals
4.1.8 Courts referred to in Article 2(2)
4.1.8.1 Conclusions
4.1.8.2 Proposals
4.1.9 The direct transmission system
4.1.9.1 The system of direct transmission between judges
4.1.9.2 Receipt of the request
4.1.9.3 Autonomous procedural law
4.1.9.4
Author (Corp. Body): mainstrat
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Inneres
Year: 2007
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: courtCommercial Lawcivil law
Subject: European Community law in generalCivil law in generalCommercial law. Economic law
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Reversing the burden of proof : Practical dilemmas at the European and national level
Abstract
This report examines the background to EU rules on the burden of proof, the development of principles laid down in the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) and their application to the Racial and Employment Equality Directives in proceedings before civil and labour courts. Given that the bulk of this case law is related to the gender ground, it will necessarily rely on case law relating to gender discrimination. However, the focus will – as much as possible – be on judgments on race and ethnic origin, age, disability, religion and sexual orientation. [Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
Executive Summary
Introduction
I. Origins of the burden of proof provisions
II. European law on equal treatment and non-discrimination
II.1. The gender equality provisions
II.2. The Equal Treatment and Non-discrimination Directives
III. Previous studies on the burden of proof
IV. Recent judgments of the CJEU relevant to the burden of proof
V. Theoretical underpinnings and general considerations
V.1. General note
V.2. Discovery of facts: evidence
V.3. The form of discrimination to be proven
V.4. Conduct
V.5. Harm
V.6. Protected ground
V.7. Comparators
V.8. Bias, causation, negligence and intent
V.9. Prima facie cases: the point of (no) return
V.10. Justification defence
V.11. Rebuttal
V.12. Procedural scheme
VI. Implementation in Member States
VI.1. General trends and patterns
VI.2. Application of the burden of proof rules in practice
VII. Practical concerns relating to the burden of proof rules
VII.1. Right to information
VII.2. Establishing a comparator
VII.3. The prima facie case
VII.4. Potentially different standards according to the protected ground
VII.5. Justification and rebuttal
VII.6. Different outcomes according to the legal forum used
VII.7. Different outcomes according to whether the litigant is an individual or an NGO
VIII. Possible improvements to the implementation of the burden of proof provisions
Conclusions
Bibliography
Table of legislation
List of cases
Author: Farkas, Lilla | O’Farrell, Orlagh
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher | Europäisches Netz unabhängiger Sachverständiger im Bereich der Nichtdiskriminierung | Human European Consultancy, Utrecht | Migration Policy Group
Publisher: Amt für Amtliche Veröffentlichungen, Luxemburg
Year: 2015
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-44625-2 | DS-06-14-238-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: old ageequal rights lawlabor lawhandicapemployment policydiscriminationethnic originEU
court of justicereligious freedomracial policylawlegal usagesexualityjudgment or sentencecivil law
Subject: European Community law in generalCivil law in generalLabour law. Social lawHuman rightsRacial policySocial valuesReligious practice
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
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