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Title: THEMATIC COMMENT No 3 : THE PROTECTION OF MINORITIES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION
1. THE DEFINITION OF A MINORITY AND ITS STATUS IN DOMESTIC LAW
2. MONITORING THE SITUATION OF MINORITIES
3. ENSURING AN ADEQUATE PROTECTION AGAINST DISCRIMINATION
4. PROHIBITION OF INCITEMENT TO NATIONAL, RACIAL OR RELIGIOUS HATRED OR DISCRIMINATION, IN PARTICULAR IN THE MEDIA, AND THE REPRESENTATION OF MINORITIES IN THE MEDIA
5. FREEDOM OF RELIGION
6. LINGUISTIC RIGHTS
7. THE SPECIFIC SITUATION OF THE ROMA/GYPSIES
LIST OF RECOMMENDATIONS
APPENDIX: THE PROTECTION OF MINORITIES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION
APPENDIX A: THE DEFINITION OF A MINORITY AND ITS STATUS IN DOMESTIC LAW
APPENDIX B : AFFILIATION WITH A MINORITY
APPENDIX C : THE OBSTACLES FACING THE MUSLIM COMMUNITY
APPENDIX D: THE RIGHTS OF LINGUISTIC MINORITIES : AN OVERVIEW
Author (Corp. Body): Network of Independent Experts on Fundamental Rights
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Inneres
Year: 2005
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: CFR-CDF.ThemComm2005.en
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: gipsyEUreligious freedompolicy on minoritiesracismlanguage group
Subject: Racial policyReligious practiceLanguagesRaces and ethnic groups
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Opinion No 4-2005 : The right to conscientious objection and the conclusion by EU Member states of concordats with the
Holy See
Table of Contents
I. Introduction
II. The legal framework of concordats concluded between States and the Holy See
III. The compatibility of concordats containing a provision on the right to religious conscientious objection with the requirements of fundamental rights and Union law
APPENDIX I
APPENDIX II
Author (Corp. Body): Network of Independent Experts on Fundamental Rights
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz, Freiheit und Sicherheit
Year: 2005
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: CFR-CDF.Opinion 4-2005.doc
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EUconcordatVatican Cityconscientious objector
Subject: European Community external relationsEuropean Community treaties and agreementsReligious practice
Countries Scheme: Europe. General ResourcesVatican City
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: National protection beyond the two EU Anti-discrimination Directives Justice : The grounds of religion and belief,
disability, age and sexual orientation beyond employment
Table of Contents
Executive Summary
Introduction
EU Proposal
International context
Structure of the report
I Domestic regulation of discrimination
1.1 Introduction
1.2 States providing protection across the material scope of Council Directive2000/43 in respect of all relevant grounds
1.3 States providing broad (but notcomprehensive) protection fromd iscrimination in relation to all the relevant grounds
1.4 States providing significant protection in relation to all or most of the relevant grounds beyond the material scope of Council Directive 2000/78
1.5 States providing uneven protection in relation to the relevant grounds
1.6 States providing limited protection in relation to the relevant grounds
1.7 Conclusion
II Approaches to “discrimination”
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Definitions of discrimination
2.3 Harassment and freedom of expression
2.4 Reasonable accommodation
2.5 Positive action
III Material and personal scope
3.1 Personal Scope
3.1.1 Liability for Discrimination
3.1.2 Protection from Discrimination
3.1.3 Vicarious/ third party liability
3.2 Material Scope
IV General exceptions
4.1 Introduction
4.2 General justification defences
4.3 An alternative approach: detailed statutory exceptions
4.4 Exceptions concerned with religious autonomy
4.5 Implied exceptions to prohibitions on discrimination
4.6 Concluding remarks on exceptions
V Enforcement
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Effectiveness
5.3 Judicial enforcement: the problem of costs
5.4 Alternative means of enforcement
5.5 Remedies
Conclusion
ANNEX: The state of play across the 33 states
Author: McColgan, Aileen ; 171134397
Contributer: Europäisches Netz unabhängiger Sachverständiger im Bereich der Nichtdiskriminierung | Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz | Migration Policy Group | Human European Consultancy, Utrecht
Publisher: Amt für Amtliche Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2013
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-33036-0 | DS-02-13-406-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: equal rights laweducationserviceEUnation-state
Subject: Social securityEqual opportunitiesReligious practiceEducational needs. Access to education
Countries Scheme: Europe. General ResourcesTurkey
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Angemessene Vorkehrungen in Europa nicht nur für das Merkmal " Behinderung"? : Zusammenfassung
Title (other): L'aménagement raisonnable au-delà du handicap en Europe : Résumé
Author: Bribosia, Emmanuelle ; 144002655 | Ririve, Isabelle
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz | Europäisches Netz unabhängiger Sachverständiger im Bereich der Nichtdiskriminierung | Migration Policy Group | Human European Consultancy, Utrecht
Publisher: Amt für Amtliche Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2013
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-35395-6 | DS-04-14-032-DE-N | 978-92-79-35396-3 | DS-04-14-032-FR-N
Language: de | fr
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: equal rights lawemploymentserviceEUaffirmative actionreligion
Subject: European Community law in generalSocial problems in generalEqual opportunitiesReligious practicePhysical handicaps
Countries Scheme: Europe. General ResourcesCanadaUSA
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Reasonable accomodation beyond disability in Europe?
Table of Contents
Executive summary
Introduction
I. North America: The origins of the concept of reasonable accommodation
1. United States law
2. Canadian law
II. Council of Europe
1. Religion and belief: the back and forth of the European Court of Human Rights
2. Ethnicity: The Roma as vulnerable group
3. A case-by-case approach
III. European Union
1. A reasonable accommodation duty focused on disability
2. Disability-related "special" characteristics
3. The response of the indirect discrimination device
4. The logic of accommodation is not a new legal phenomenon
IV. Memberstates
1. Religion and belief
1.1 Time off for religious festivals and flexible working hours
1.2 Dietary requirements and slaughtering of animals
1.3 Accommodation of employment or vocational training requirements
1.4 Religious symbols and dress codes
1.5 Other cases
2. Race and ethnic origin
3. Age: Special duties to accommodate young and/or older workers
Conclusion
Bibliography
I. Publications
II. Legislation
III. Case-law
Author: Bribosia, Emmanuelle ; 144002655 | Ririve, Isabelle
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz | Europäisches Netz unabhängiger Sachverständiger im Bereich der Nichtdiskriminierung | Migration Policy Group | Human European Consultancy, Utrecht
Publisher: Amt für Amtliche Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2013
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-35255-3 | DS-02-14-017-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: equal rights lawemploymentserviceEUaffirmative actionreligion
Subject: European Community law in generalSocial problems in generalEqual opportunitiesReligious practicePhysical handicaps
Countries Scheme: Europe. General ResourcesCanadaUSA
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: The criminal justice response to radicalisation : Executive summary
Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Opening High-Level Ministerial Session
Workshops
Workshop 1 – Preventing radicalisation to violent extremism – special focus on prisons
Workshop 2 – On the role and challenges for criminal justice practitioners when dealing with radicalised violent extremists
Closing session
REPORT
Opening speeches
Ministerial Panel
Workshops
Workshop 1 – Preventing radicalisation leading to violent extremism – special focus on prisons
Panel 1 – How can our prisons deal with radicalised or extremist prisoners?
Panel 2 – Experience from de-radicalisation programmes in prisons and the role of religious counselling
Workshop 2 – The role and challenges for criminal justice practitioners when dealing with radicalised and violent extremists
Panel 1 – The role of the judiciary in disengagement, rehabilitation and de-radicalisation - discussion among judges and prosecutors
Panel 2 – How to develop rehabilitation programmes to be used in criminal proceedings?
Closing session
Reports from the Workshops: Inspiring practices in EU Member States
Closing remarks
Author (Corp. Body): High level ministerial conference
Contributer: Europäische Kommission
Year: 2015
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Vorträge und Tagungsbeiträge
Keyword: EUjudiciarypenal institutioncriminal sociologymeasureradicalismreligionterrorism
Subject: Peace. Wars. TerrorismEuropean Community law in generalAdministration of justiceReligious practice
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
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Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Reversing the burden of proof : Practical dilemmas at the European and national level
Abstract
This report examines the background to EU rules on the burden of proof, the development of principles laid down in the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) and their application to the Racial and Employment Equality Directives in proceedings before civil and labour courts. Given that the bulk of this case law is related to the gender ground, it will necessarily rely on case law relating to gender discrimination. However, the focus will – as much as possible – be on judgments on race and ethnic origin, age, disability, religion and sexual orientation. [Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
Executive Summary
Introduction
I. Origins of the burden of proof provisions
II. European law on equal treatment and non-discrimination
II.1. The gender equality provisions
II.2. The Equal Treatment and Non-discrimination Directives
III. Previous studies on the burden of proof
IV. Recent judgments of the CJEU relevant to the burden of proof
V. Theoretical underpinnings and general considerations
V.1. General note
V.2. Discovery of facts: evidence
V.3. The form of discrimination to be proven
V.4. Conduct
V.5. Harm
V.6. Protected ground
V.7. Comparators
V.8. Bias, causation, negligence and intent
V.9. Prima facie cases: the point of (no) return
V.10. Justification defence
V.11. Rebuttal
V.12. Procedural scheme
VI. Implementation in Member States
VI.1. General trends and patterns
VI.2. Application of the burden of proof rules in practice
VII. Practical concerns relating to the burden of proof rules
VII.1. Right to information
VII.2. Establishing a comparator
VII.3. The prima facie case
VII.4. Potentially different standards according to the protected ground
VII.5. Justification and rebuttal
VII.6. Different outcomes according to the legal forum used
VII.7. Different outcomes according to whether the litigant is an individual or an NGO
VIII. Possible improvements to the implementation of the burden of proof provisions
Conclusions
Bibliography
Table of legislation
List of cases
Author: Farkas, Lilla | O’Farrell, Orlagh
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher | Europäisches Netz unabhängiger Sachverständiger im Bereich der Nichtdiskriminierung | Human European Consultancy, Utrecht | Migration Policy Group
Publisher: Amt für Amtliche Veröffentlichungen, Luxemburg
Year: 2015
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-44625-2 | DS-06-14-238-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: old ageequal rights lawlabor lawhandicapemployment policydiscriminationethnic originEU
court of justicereligious freedomracial policylawlegal usagesexualityjudgment or sentencecivil law
Subject: European Community law in generalCivil law in generalLabour law. Social lawHuman rightsRacial policySocial valuesReligious practice
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
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