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Title: Study on measuring consumer detriment in the European Union : Final report ; Part 1 – Main report
Title (other): Study on measuring consumer detriment in the European Union : Executive Summary | Operational guidance document on
measuring personal consumer detriment : Developed as part of the Study on measuring consumer detriment in the European
Union
Abstract
This study developed a methodology to assess revealed personal consumer detriment that robustly measures and quantifies the incidence and magnitude of detriment at EU and national level, taking into account both pre- and post-redress financial detriment and non-financial detriment such as time loss and psychological detriment. It can be applied consistently across a broad array of markets as well as adapted to specific markets. An operational guidance document was developed to guide practitioners based on the work undertaken in this study. The methodology builds on previous studies in different countries and markets. Consumer surveys constitute the main data collection tool. The methodology was applied in six markets (mobile telephone services; clothing, footwear and bags; train services; large household appliances; electricity services; and loans, credit and credit cards) and four countries (France, Italy, Poland and the UK). Results were extrapolated to the EU28. The results show that, across the six markets covered, consumers suffered total pre-redress financial detriment of between EUR 15.4 billion and EUR 47.9 billion, post-redress financial detriment of between EUR 9.6 billion and EUR 33.3 billion and monetised time loss of between EUR 10.7 billion and EUR 25.0 billion over the last 12 months in the EU28.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION
2. OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE
2.1. Objectives
2.2. Study questions
2.3. Geographical scope and coverage
2.4. Time period
2.5. Thematic coverage and main tasks
2.6. Methodological tools applied
2.7. Main study phases
3. DEFINITION OF PERSONAL CONSUMER DETRIMENT
3.1. Background
3.2. Refinement of the definition
4. DEVELOPMENT OF THE APPROACH TO MEASURE PERSONAL CONSUMER DETRIMENT
4.1. Rationale for the survey-based approach
4.2. Markets subject to assessment
4.3. Countries subject to assessment
4.4. Key concepts concerning survey-based measurement of personal consumer detriment
4.5. Dimensions of consumer detriment
4.6. Development of the draft consumer survey questionnaire
4.7. Cognitive interviews
4.8. Pilot consumer survey
4.9. Final approach to measuring personal consumer detriment and extrapolating results
5. DEVELOPMENT OF THE APPROACH TO TRIANGULATION OF CONSUMER SURVEY RESULTS
5.1. Rationale for triangulation and related triangulation tools
5.2. Development of the survey of complaint handling bodies
5.3. Development of the mystery shopping exercise
5.4. Final approach to triangulation of results on consumer detriment
6. ASSESSMENT OF PERSONAL CONSUMER DETRIMENT IN SIX MARKETS
6.1. Implementation of the main consumer surveys
6.2. Incidence of personal consumer detriment overall and by country
6.3. Magnitude of personal consumer detriment overall and by country
6.4. Personal consumer detriment by socio-demographic group and factor/driver of consumer vulnerability
6.5. Magnitude of personal consumer detriment comparing purchases over the internet vs other sales channels and cross-border vs. domestic purchases
6.6. Estimation of magnitude of personal consumer detriment using the ‘fair price’ approach
6.7. Comparison of incidence and magnitude of financial detriment across modes
6.8. Contextual information and description of problems experienced by respondents
| 7. TRIANGULATION OF CONSUMER SURVEY RESULTS
7.1. Triangulation based on data from the European Commission harmonised complaints database and the survey of complaint handling bodies
7.2. Triangulation based on mystery shopping data
7.3. Conclusions of the triangulation
8. EXTRAPOLATION OF FINANCIAL DETRIMENT AND TIME LOSS DETRIMENT TO COUNTRY AND EU LEVEL
8.1. Country-level extrapolation
8.2. Extrapolation to EU28
9. OVERALL CONCLUSIONS OF THE STUDY
9.1. Conclusions on the development of the methodology
9.2. Conclusions on the application of the methodology
9.3. Recommendations on collection and analysis of data as well as consumer analysis at EU level
| 0. Introduction and overview
0.1. Aim of this guidance
0.2. Definition of personal consumer detriment
0.3. Key concepts concerning the measurement of personal consumer detriment
0.4. Overview of steps to apply the methodology
Step 1 - Definition of the scope of the data collection
1.1. Define the geographical scope of the assessment
1.2. Select the market(s) for assessment
1.3. Determine the required sample size and survey mode
1.4. Determine the additional data collection tool(s) to be used for triangulation of the results of the consumer survey, if necessary
1.5. Consider the need for additional data collection tool(s) for the assessment among specific vulnerable consumer groups or in very low penetration markets
Step 2 - Consumer survey questionnaire
2.1. Screener questions
2.2. Market module questions
2.3. Questions on socio-demographics and consumer expectations
Step 3 - Assessment of detriment, triangulation and extrapolation
3.1. Measure the incidence of detriment
3.2. Measure the magnitude of detriment
3.3. Context to the detriment measured
3.4. Triangulate results of consumer survey with other data sources, if relevant
3.5. Extrapolate results to country or for the entire EU, if relevant
Author (Corp. Body): Civic Consulting
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher | TNS Opinion | European Commission / Consumers, Health, Agriculture and Food Executive Agenc
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Amt für Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2017
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-9200-747-8 | EB-02-17-004-EN-N | 978-92-9200-745-4 | EB-02-17-003-EN-N | 978-92-9200-744-7 | EB-02-17-002-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: loanservicerailroadelectronic commerceelectronic marketEUFranceGreat Britain
Italyclothingcredit marketPolandtelephoneconsumer protection
Subject: European Community law in generalConsumption. Consumer protection
Countries Scheme: Europe. General ResourcesPolandItalyFranceUnited Kingdom
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Title: Consumer market study on the functioning of legal and commercial guarantees for consumers in the EU : Final report
Title (other): Consumer market study on the functioning of legal and commercial guarantees for consumers in the EU : Annex ; Final
report | Consumer market study on the functioning of legal and commercial guarantees for consumers in the EU : Executive
Summary | Consumer market study on the functioning of legal and commercial guarantees for consumers in the EU : Country
fiche: Austria
Abstract
This study about legal and commercial guarantees, funded by the European Union in the frame of the EU Consumer Programme (2014-2020), looks at the extent to which sellers are aware of, and comply with, relevant EU legislation; the way in which legal and commercial guarantees are communicated to consumers; and the extent to which consumers are aware of their rights and are willing to make use of them. The study also seeks to provide a better understanding of the way consumers perceive commercial guarantees and their impact on purchasing decisions.The study covers all EU Member States, Iceland and Norway. Between September 2014 and August 2015, the following activities were carried out: a regulatory review of the implementation of the Consumer Sales Directive; consultations with retailers, manufacturers, consumer bodies, ECC-net, ADR bodies and enforcement authorities; an online consumer survey measuring consumers’ experience with legal and commercial guarantees; an online behavioural experiment consisting of a choice and willingness-to-pay experiment as well as a comprehension test; a mystery shopping exercise replicating consumers’ experiences when it comes to seeking information regarding legal and commercial guarantees, and executing their rights; and a price collection exercise recording commercial guarantee prices for four different consumer good categories.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
1. Introduction and background
1.1 Objectives and scope of the study
1.2 Main tasks and methodology used
1.2.1 Main task 1: Regulatory review and stakeholder consultation
1.2.2 Main task 2: Consumer survey
1.2.3 Main task 3: Price collection
1.2.4 Main task 4: Mystery shopping
1.2.5 Main task 5: Behavioural experiment
1.3 Terminology used in this study
2. The legal guarantees regulatory environment in the EU
2.1 The applicable EU legislation
2.2 Implementation of the Consumer Sales Directive in the EU28
2.3 Enforcement issues
3. Consumer information
3.1 Informing consumers about the free of charge, two-year legal guarantee
3.1.1 Information provided in online stores
3.1.2 Information displayed in-store with the product or provided spontaneously by a sales person
3.1.3 Informing consumers about the legal guarantee period
3.2 Information provided with commercial guarantees
3.2.1 Information displayed with the commercial guarantee
3.2.2 Information provided about terms and conditions of the commercial guarantee
3.2.3 Reminding consumers about the legal guarantee
3.2.4 Communicating price information to consumers
3.3 The importance of providing information to increase consumers’ trust in sellers and authorities
4. Consumer understanding and decision making
4.1 Understanding of the legal guarantee
4.2 Knowledge of legal guarantee provisions
4.2.1 Knowledge about the length of the legal guarantee period
4.2.2 Legal guarantee provisions
4.2.3 Knowledge about what is covered by the legal guarantee
4.2.4 Burden of proof
4.2.5 Freezing/reset of guarantee duration
4.2.6 Spare parts
4.2.7 Original packaging
5. Sellers’ and consumers’ awareness of legal and commercial guarantee provisions
5.1 Consumers’ views about information provided about legal and commercial guarantees
5.1.1 Consumers’ evaluation of information received about the legal guarantee
| 7.1.2 Extent to which consumers seek redress
7.1.3 Consumers’ experiences when seeking redress
7.1.4 Impact of problems when seeking redress on trust in sellers, public authorities and consumer organisations
7.1.5 Unfair commercial practices
7.1.6 Level of consumer detriment, as reported by consumers
7.2 Remedies
7.2.1 Sellers’ or manufacturers’ liability?
7.2.2 Consumers’ views on the hierarchy of remedies
7.2.3 Remedies offered when seeking redress
7.2.4 How do sellers communicate about the hierarchy of remedies?
7.2.5 Prior overview of costs linked to a repair
7.2.6 How long does it take to provide consumers with a remedy?
7.3 Redress
7.3.1 Do consumers abuse their legal and commercial guarantee rights?
7.3.2 Effectiveness of complaints handling by ADR/ODR
7.3.3 Consumers’ trust in public authorities and consumer organisations to protect their rights
8. Key conclusions and recommendations
8.1 Information provision and consumer understanding
8.1.1 Information provision about legal andcommercial guarantees
8.1.2 Consumer understanding
8.2 Consumer choice and comparison
8.2.1 The commercial guarantee market
8.2.2 Consumers’ understanding and choice of commercial guarantees
8.3 Consumer problems
8.3.1 Incidence of problems
8.3.2 Problem areas identified by the study with regards to sellers’ compliance
8.3.3 Effectiveness of complaint handling
8.3.4 Cross-border enforcement of consumer guarantees rights
| 5.1.2 Consumers’ evaluation of information received about commercial guarantees
5.1.3 Access to information about guarantees (actively searched by consumers)
5.2 Consumers’ awareness of the existence of a legal guarantee
5.3 Sellers’ awareness about the free-of-charge, two-year legal guarantee
5.4 Stakeholders’ opinions on consumers’ awareness and access to information
6. Consumers’ experience with commercial guarantees
6.1 The commercial guarantee market
6.1.1 Examination of commercial guarantees offered online
6.1.2 Examination of commercial guarantees offered in-store
6.1.3 Examination of commercial guarantees offered with cars
6.1.4 Buying products with a commercial guarantee
6.2 Consumers’ purchase behaviour for commercial guarantees
6.2.1 Details about the purchasing process
6.2.2 Comparing commercial guarantees before making a purchase
6.2.3 Reasons for buying a commercial guarantee
6.2.4 Reasons for not buying commercial guarantees
6.2.5 What could convince consumers to buy a commercial guarantee?
6.2.6 Consumers’ experience with withdrawal from a commercial guarantee bought online
6.3 Consumers’ choice and understanding of commercial guarantees
6.3.1 Proportion of respondents choosing the correct option
6.3.2 The impact of information, complexity and framing on commercial guarantee choice
6.3.3 Impact of motivations, comprehension and cognitive ability on performance in the choice experiment
6.4 Willingness to pay for commercial guarantees
6.4.1 Average willingness-to-pay
6.4.2 Impact of product price and duration of the commercial guarantee on willingness to pay
6.4.3 Impact of motivations on willingness to pay
6.4.4 Impact of awareness and knowledge of legal guarantees on willingness-to-pay
6.4.5 Impact of trust in sellers and institutions on willingness to pay (WTP)
7. Consumer experience: problems, remedies and redress
7.1 Problems
7.1.1 Proportion of consumers encountering problems
| Annex
ANNEX 1 MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THE LEGAL GUARANTEES REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT IN THE EU
A1.1 Terminology around guarantees
A1.2 The applicable EU legislation
A1.3 State of play of the implementation of the legislation
ANNEX 2 THE LEGAL GUARANTEE FOR SECOND HAND GOODS
A2.1 Buying second hand goods
A2.2 Informing consumers about the legal guarantee for second hand goods and its length
ANNEX 3 VALUATION OF THE LEGAL AND COMMERCIAL GUARANTEE MARKET
A3.1 Valuation of the paid-for commercial guarantee market
A3.2 Valuation of the integral commercial guarantees market
A3.3 Valuation of the legal guarantee market
ANNEX 4 BEHAVIOURAL EXPERIMENT REGRESSION ANALYSIS
ANNEX 5 REFERENCES
ANNEX 6 METHODOLOGY
A6.1 Literature review and stakeholder consultation
A6.2 Price collection
A6.3 Consumer survey
A6.4 Mystery shopping exercise
A6.5 Behavioural experiment design
Author (Corp. Body): Ipsos London Economics Deloitte consortium
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher | Consumers, Health, Agriculture and Food Executive Agency
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Amt für Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2015
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-53734-9 | DS-02-15-930-EN-N | 978-92-79-53727-1 | DS-02-15-931-EN-N | 978-92-79-53762-2 | DS-01-15-922-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EUguaranteecommerceinternetlegal claimconsumerconsumer protection
Subject: European Community law in generalConsumption. Consumer protection
Countries Scheme: Germany. General ResourcesAustria. General ResourcesEurope. General ResourcesDenmarkFinlandIceland
NorwaySwedenEstoniaLatviaPolandSlovak RepublicCzech RepublicHungaryBulgariaCroatia
RomaniaSloveniaGreeceItalyMaltaPortugalSpainCyprusBelgiumFranceUnited KingdomIrelandLuxembourgNetherlands
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Title: Screening report Serbia : Chapter 28 – Consumer and health protection
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Directorate General for Neighbourhood and Enlargement Negotiations
Year: 2016
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: MD 146/16
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EUjoining of the European Unionhealth policySerbiaconsumer protection
Subject: European Community external relationsConsumption. Consumer protectionHealth. Illness
Countries Scheme: Serbia
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Title: Behavioural Study on Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media : Final Report
Title (other): Behavioural Study on Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media : Executive Summary | Behavioural Study
on Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media : Annex 1.0 Literature review | Behavioural Study on
Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media : Annex 1.1.1 Country fiches | Behavioural Study on
Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media : Annex 1.1.2 OSM providers selection for Desk Research |
Behavioural Study on Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media : Annex 1.1.3 Provider fiches desktop |
Behavioural Study on Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media : Annex 1.1.4 Provider fiches
applications | Behavioural Study on Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media : Annex 1. 3.1 Desk
research report | Behavioural Study on Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media : Annex 1.3.2 Online
communities report | Behavioural Study on Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media : Annex 1. 4 .1
Stakeholder survey | Behavioural Study on Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media : Annex 1.5 Legal
assessment of problematic practices | Behavioural Study on Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media :
Annex 1. 6 Identification of remedies | Behavioural Study on Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media
: Annex 2.1 Behavioural experiments | Behavioural Study on Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media :
Annex 1.2 Business model identification
Abstract
The key objective of this multi-method, exploratory study was to investigate advertising and marketing practices in online social media (OSM) from the perspective of consumer behaviour and consumer protection. It aimed to identify and assess commercial practices in the context of OSM that could be potentially unfair or misleading for consumers. Furthermore, the study aimed to investigate the factors that contribute to their prevalence, and to identify and assess potential remedies to these problematic commercial practices.
Table of Contents
1 Introduction
1.1 Study objectives and report structure
1.2 Methodological approach
1.3 Definition of Online Social Media
2 Online Social Media in the EU
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Top Online Social Media providers in the EU
2.3 Differences across EU Member States
2.4 Key Online Social Media providers in focus
2.4.1 Facebook Inc.
2.4.2 YouTube
2.4.3 Twitter
2.4.4 Reddit
2.4.5 LinkedIn
2.4.6 Snapchat
2.5 Revenue streams of Online Social Media providers
2.6 Delivering marketing content to Online Social Media users
2.7 Commercial practices on Online Social Media
3. Disguised Advertising Practices
3.1 Introduction
3.1.1 Native advertising
3.1.2 Influencer marketing
3.1.3 Advertorials
3.2 Consumer issues
3.2.1 Evidence from the qualitative research
3.2.2 Evidence from the behavioural experiments
3.2.3 Conclusions
3.3 Legal assessment and remedies
3.3.1 Options for regulatory action
3.3.2 Options for enforcement action
3.3.3 Options for self-regulatory action
3.3.4 Other remedy options
4. Social Proof Practices
4.1 Introduction
4.1.1 Artificial boosting of social proof indicators
4.1.2 Extrapolation of social endorsements
4.1.3 Other practices linked to social proof
4.2 Consumer issues
4.2.1 Evidence from the qualitative research
4.2.2 Evidence from the behavioural experiments
4.2.2.1 Artificial boosting of social proof indicators
4.2.2.2 Extrapolation of social endorsements
4.3 Conclusions
| 4.4 Legal assessment and remedies
4.4.1 Options for regulatory action
4.4.2 Options for enforcement action
4.4.3 Options for self-regulatory action
5. Data Gathering and Targeting Practices
5.1 Introduction
5.1.1 User tracking
5.1.2 Audience targeting
5.1.3 Social media logins
5.2 Consumer issues
5.3 Conclusions
5.4 Legal assessment and remedies
5.4.1 Options for regulatory action
5.4.2 Practice-specific options for enforcement
5.4.3 Other remedy options
6 Other Problematic Practices
6.1 Description of specific practices identified
6.2 Consumer issues, legal assessment and conclusions
6.3 Legal assessment and remedies
6.3.1 Options for enforcement action
7 Conclusions
7.1 The OSM Landscape in the EU
7.2 Disguised advertising practices
7.2.1 Introduction and evidence of consumer issues
7.2.2 Options for regulatory action
7.2.3 Options for enforcement action
7.3 Social proof practices
7.3.1 Introduction and evidence of consumer issues
7.3.2 Options for regulatory action
7.3.3 Options for enforcement action
7.4 Data gathering practices
7.4.1 Introduction and evidence of consumer issues
7.4.2 Options for regulatory action
7.4.3 Options for enforcement action
7.5 General discussion of the current legal context
8 Appendix – Limitations and Future Research
9 List of Annexes
Author (Corp. Body): GfK Consortium
Contributer: Wageningen Universiteit en Researchcentrum | CentERdata | Europäische Kommission / Consumers, Health, Agriculture and Food Executive Agency | Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher | Rand Eu
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Amt für Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2018
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: Framework contract No. Chafea 2015 CP 01 | Project number: 2018.3823 | 978-92-9200-945-8 | EB-01-18-679-EN-N | Specific contract No. 2015 85 01 | Project number : 2018.3821 | 978-92-9200-932-8 | EB-02-18-896-EN-N | 978-92-9200-940-3 | EB-01-18-680-EN-N | 978-92-9200-937-3 | EB-01-18-681-EN-N | 978-92-9200-946-5 | EB-01-18-682-EN-N | 978-92-9200-941-0 | EB-01-18-683-EN-N | 978-92-9200-943-4 | 978-92-9200-944-1 | EB-01-18-687-EN-N | EB-01-18-686-EN-N | 978-92-9200-939-7 | EB-01-18-688-EN-N | 978-92-9200-933-5 | EB-01-18-690-EN-N | 978-92-9200-934-2 | EB-01-18-691-EN-N | 978-92-9200-942-7 | EB-01-18-692-EN-N | 978-92-9200-935-9 | EB-01-18-685-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EUmarketing instrumentmediaonline mediaconsumerconsumer protectionadvertising mediaadvertising
competition
Subject: European Community law in generalMediaMarkets. CompetitionConsumption. Consumer protection
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
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Title: Behavioural Study on the transparency of online platforms : Final report
Title (other): Behavioural Study on the transparency of online platforms : Executive summary
Abstract
The overall purpose of this Behavioural Study on the Transparency of Online Platforms is to understand the impact of enhanced transparency on consumer trust and behaviour in searching and selecting goods and services on online platforms in three specific areas:Area #1: The general criteria used by platform operators to decide which items are shown to users, in which order, and at what level of saliency, including the disclosure of ownership or contractual relationships that may influence these criteria.Area #2: The identity and the legal status of the contracting parties involved in transactions enabled or facilitated by the platforms (e.g. whether the consumer would be entering a contract with the platform provider or some other retailer or service provider and whether that person is acting as a trader within the meaning of EU consumer law or not).Area #3: The quality controls established by platform operators (or lack thereof) on user review, rating and endorsement systems, e.g. verification of origin and authenticity, incentives linked to entries, screening / censorship, right to rebuttal of affected parties, etc.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 POLICY CONTEXT AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
1.3 METHODOLOGICAL NOTE
1.4 STRUCTURE OF THIS REPORT
2 SEARCH RESULTS: PRESENTATION AND TRANSPARENCY
2.1 REGULATORY ASPECTS
2.2 CONSUMER PRACTICES AND PREFERENCE
2.3 EXPERIMENT ON THE PRESENTATION AND TRANSPARENCY OF SEARCH RESULTS
3 TRANSPARENCY ABOUT THE IDENTITY OF CONTRACTUAL PARTIES
3.1 REGULATORY ASPECTS
3.2 CONSUMER PRACTICES AND PREFERENCES
3.3 EXPERIMENT ON TRANSPARENCY REGARDING CONTRACTUAL IDENTITY
4 TRANSPARENCY OF CONSUMER REVIEW, RATING, AND ENDORSEMENT SYSTEMS
4.1 REGULATORY ASPECTS
4.2 CONSUMER PRACTICES AND PREFERENCES
4.3 EXPERIMENT ON TRANSPARENCY OF CONSUMER REVIEWS AND RATING
5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 OVERVIEW
5.2 POLICY OPTIONS
5.2.1 Transparency of content and presentation features of search results
5.2.2 Transparency about the identity of contractual parties
5.2.3 Transparency of consumer review, rating, and endorsement systems
5.3 TRANSPARENCY BY DESIGN
REFERENCES
ANNEXES
List of figures
List of tables
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission / Consumers, Health, Agriculture and Food Executive Agency
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher
Year: 2018
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: Specific contract No. 2016 85 04 | Framework contract No. Chafea 2015 CP 01 | 978-92-9200-879-6 | EB-04-18-277-EN-N | 978-92-9200-878-9 | EB-02-18-417-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: serviceEUcommerceinternetonline servicequality controllegal basistransparency
consumer protectionsellingeconomic development (on national level)
Subject: Trade. Service industryConsumption. Consumer protection
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
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Title: Study on consumers’ decision making in insurance services : a behavioural economics perspective ; Final report
Title (other): Study on consumers’ decision making in insurance services : a behavioural economics perspective ; Executive Summary |
Study on consumers’ decision making in insurance services : a behavioural economics perspective ; Annexes to the Final
Report | Study on consumers’ decision making in insurance services : a behavioural economics perspective ; Final report
– Country fiches
Abstract
The study had a threefold objective: Collecting data and evidence, testing a range of remedies to improve consumer decision-making and interest in cross-border offers, and estimating savings consumers could make. The preparatory phase involved the collection of qualitative and quantitative evidence on both demand for and supply of insurance and explored barriers and drivers of cross-border purchases, to support the design of the experimental phase; it consisted of desk-based research, stakeholder interviews, and focus groups. Task 2 involved a consumer survey conducted in conjunction with behavioural experiments, to provide quantitative evidence on consumers’ experiences in the market, the impact of contract features and the presentation of information on consumers’ decision-making, the interplay between contract features and behavioural traits, and consumers’ interest in and barriers to purchasing insurance cross-border. In particular, the experiments tested the effectiveness of remedies to improve consumer decision-making. The survey examined respondents’ behavioural characteristics, experience, and comprehension. Task 3 used the data and evidence collected to estimate potential savings for consumers that better choices may allow for the products studied. The study conclusions and recommendations address a number of general and cross-border insurance issues, such as the provision of information to consumers, the purchasing process, and levels of awareness and understanding.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION AND RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
1. INTRODUCTION AND RESEARCH OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.1. Countries covered in the study
1.2. Products covered in the study
METHODOLOGY
2. SUMMARY OF THE RESEARCH METHODS USED TO INFORM THIS STUDY
2.1. Desk-based research
2.2. Stakeholder interviews
2.3. Focus groups
2.4. Online experiment and survey
2.5. Design of the laboratory experiment and survey
2.6. Approach to measuring potential savings consumers could make
EVIDENCE AND FINDINGS
3. FEATURES OF THE NON-LIFE INSURANCE MARKET
3.1. Non-life insurance market data
3.2. Insurers’ practices and distribution channels
3.3. Cross-border selling
4. CONSUMER DECISION-MAKING IN THE NON-LIFE INSURANCE MARKET
4.1. The consumer decision-making framework
4.2. Insights into consumer decision-making from behavioural economics
4.3. Situations in which consumers decide to buy or renew insurance
4.4. Finding and using information when shopping for insurance
4.5. Consumers’ preferred sales channels
4.6. Consumers’ use of insurance post-sale
4.7. Factors potentially leading to problems with consumer decision-making
5. EFFECTIVENESS OF REMEDIES IN HELPING CONSUMERS TO MAKE BETTER DECISIONS
5.1. Remedies that have been proposed or put in place
5.2. Effectiveness of remedies
5.3. Note on the analysis methodology
6. FACTORS THAT LIMIT CROSS-BORDER INSURANCE PURCHASES
6.1. Main factors limiting cross-border insurance purchases
6.2. Interventions to increase cross-border demand
7. POTENTIAL SAVINGS CONSUMERS COULD MAKE
7.1. Assessment of potential premium savings
7.2. Assessment of potentially higher claims pay-outs
7.3. Further assessment of potential savings
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
8. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
8.1. Conclusions
8.2. Policy recommendations
9. BIBLIOGRAPHY
Tables
Figures
| Annexes
INTRODUCTION
ANNEXES RELATING TO TASK 1
1. ANNEX 1: APPROACH TO THE DESK-BASED RESEARCH
1.1. Literature review
1.2. Market data collection
2. ANNEX 2: APPROACH TO THE STAKEHOLDER INTERVIEWS
2.1. Preliminary list of stakeholders
2.2. Preparation ahead of the interviewing process
2.3. Interviews at Member State level
2.4. Interviews with stakeholders at EU level
2.5. Full list of stakeholders interviewed and interview dates
2.6. Stakeholder interview guides
3. ANNEX 3: COUNTRY CASE STUDY GUIDELINES
4. ANNEX 4: APPROACH TO THE FOCUS GROUPS
4.1. Design of the focus group research
4.2. Sampling and recruitment
4.3. Discussion guide
4.4. Focus group recruitment screening questions
ANNEXES RELATING TO TASK 2 – ONLINE COMPONENT
5. ANNEX 5: DESIGN OF THE ONLINE EXPERIMENTAND SURVEY
5.1. Sample sizes
5.2. Components of the experiment and survey
5.3. Structure of the contract choice task
5.4. Treatments
5.5. Incentive structure
5.6. Incorporation of findings from Task 1 and the pilot into the experimental design
6. ANNEX 6: DESIGN OF OFFERS IN THE CONTRACT CHOICE TASK
6.1. Offers home insurance
6.2. Offer motor insurance
6.3. Car rental insurance
6.4. Add-on insurance
7. ANNEX 7: SURVEY AND EXPERIMENT SCRIPT
7.1. Introduction to the Survey
7.2. Socio-demographics (D1)
7.3. Cognitive ability and behavioural characteristics (S3)
7.4. Allocation to products and treatments
7.5. Incentives and introduction to the experiment task
7.6. Choice task
7.7. Comprehension and awareness questions (S4)
7.8. Experience with non-life insurance
7.9. Identifying cross-border oriented consumers
7.10. Questions on interest in and potential obstacles of cross-border insurance purchases
8. ANNEX 8: INCENTIVE STRUCTURE
| 9. ANNEX 9: ONLINE EXPERIMENT SAMPLE SIZE CONSIDERATIONS
9.1. Impact of sample size on representativeness
9.2. Impact of sample size on the precision of estimates
ANNEXES RELATING TO TASK 2 – LABORATORY COMPONENT
10. ANNEX 10: DESIGN OF THE LABORATORY EXPERIMENT AND SURVEY
10.1. Laboratory experiment discussion guide
11. ANNEX 11: LABORATORY EXPERIMENT SAMPLE SIZE CONSIDERATIONS
11.1. Products to be tested in the laboratory environment
11.2. Contextual factors and treatments to be tested
11.3. Rationale for including one product instead of two in the choice task
11.4. Combing the online and laboratory experiment data
11.5. Including further products in the laboratory follow-up questions
FURTHER ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION
12. ANNEX 12: ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL PREMIUMSAVINGS USING SURVEY DATA
13. ANNEX 13: SHARES WHO GAVE EACH AVAILABLE ANSWER TO EACH SURVEY QUESTION
14. ANNEX 14: WEIGHTING FACTORS AND TARGET SHARES FOR GENDER, AGE AND REGION
Author (Corp. Body): London Economics | Ipsos | VVA Europe
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Amt für Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2017
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: Specific contract – No 2014 85 08 | Implementing Framework Contract – EAHC/2011/CP/01/LE | 978-92-9200-749-2 | EB-01-17-059-EN-N | 978-92-9200-750-8 | EB-17-01-060-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: servicedecision makingEUcross border cooperationconsumerconsumer protectioninsuranceinsurance benefit
Subject: European Community law in generalConsumption. Consumer protectionInsurance. Insurance risks
Countries Scheme: Germany. General ResourcesEurope. General ResourcesSwedenLatviaSlovak Republic
RomaniaItalySpainFranceUnited KingdomLuxembourg
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Title: Consumer vulnerability across key markets in the European Union : Final report
Title (other): Consumer vulnerability across key markets in the European Union : Executive Summary | Understanding consumer
vulnerability in the EU’s key markets : Factsheet | Consumer vulnerability in the EU : A European Commission study
Abstract
The study examines the incidence of vulnerability across the EU28 and Iceland and Norway, and the factors explaining any observed vulnerability. The study uses a range of information sources (literature review, stakeholder interviews, consumer survey and consumer experiments in five countries) and focuses on three key sectors in the European Union. The key finding is that incidence of vulnerability is the highest when consumers face complex advertising or when consumers do not compare deals at all or have problems comparing deals because of market-related factors or personal factors. The analysis of potential drivers of vulnerability shows that market-related drivers are particularly important as these are consistently linked with many vulnerability indicators in the statistical analysis. Among the three sectors of particular interest, the incidence of vulnerability is markedly higher in the energy and finance sectors than in the online sector. The study concludes with a number of recommendations focusing on policies to address consumer vulnerability and on the methodologies to employ in future major studies of consumer vulnerability.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
GLOSSARY
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1. BACKGROUND, INTRODUCTION AND RESEARCH OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.1. Policy context
1.2. Scope of the study
1.3. Need for the present study
1.4. Research objectives of the study
1.5. Research activities
1.6. Structure of the report
2. RESEARCH METHODS USED IN THE STUDY
2.1. Literature review
2.2. Stakeholder consultation
2.3. Consumer survey
2.4. Behavioural experiments
2.5. Biographical consumer interviews
2.6. Discussion guide
2.7. Input from the expert group
3. CONCEPTUALISATION OF A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND OPERATIONALISATION OF VULNERABILITY
3.1. Vulnerability definitions
3.2. Conceptualising and typologising vulnerability
3.3. Dimensions of vulnerability used in the present study
3.4. Potential causes of vulnerability
3.5. Expected effects of vulnerability
3.6. Operationalisation of the concept of consumer vulnerability
3.7. Operationalisation of potential drivers of vulnerability
4. INCIDENCE OF CONSUMER VULNERABILITY
4.1. Incidence of various vulnerability dimensions in the EU28 and Norway and Iceland
4.2. Extent that consumers are vulnerable across a number of dimensions
5. CONCEPT OF THE ‘AVERAGE CONSUMER’
5.1. Insights from the literature review and stakeholder consultation
5.2. Vulnerability characteristics of the “average” consumer based on the survey data
6. DRIVERS OF AND FACTORS LINKED TO CONSUMER VULNERABILITY
6.1. Overview of the survey and experiment data analysis supporting this chapter
6.2. Personal and demographic characteristics
6.3. Behavioural drivers of vulnerability
6.4. Market-related drivers of vulnerability and consumers’ experience in markets
6.5. Access drivers of vulnerability
6.6. Situational drivers of vulnerability
| 6.7. Country and country group level analysis of drivers of vulnerability
7. POPULATION OF THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF VULNERABILITY
7.1. Criteria for selecting drivers to be included in the framework
7.2. Drivers and relationships to be included in the framework
7.3. Population of the theoretical framework
7.4. Permanent versus transitory nature of consumer vulnerability
8. ROLE OF MARKETING PRACTICES
8.1. Problematic marketing practices identified via the literature review and stakeholder consultation
8.2. Evidence from the behavioural experiments
9. COMPLEXITIES OF CONSUMER VULNERABILITY ACROSS DIFFERENT SECTORS
9.1. Consumer vulnerability in the financial sector
9.2. Consumer vulnerability in the energysector
9.3. Consumer vulnerability in the online environment and electronic communications sector
9.4. Comparison of vulnerability across the three sectors
10. BEST PRACTICE POLICY MEASURES IN MEMBER STATES AND AT EU LEVEL
10.1. Measures addressing consumer vulnerability
10.2. Institutional structure and role of civil society
10.3. Typology of Member States
11. CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND POLICY OPTIONS
11.1. Conclusions
11.2. Recommendations for the Consumer Scoreboards and market studies
11.3. Recommendations and conclusions concerning the UCPD Guidance
11.4. Policy options for mitigating consumer vulnerability
| REFERENCES AND ANNEXES
REFERENCES
ANNEX 1 COUNTRY FICHES
ANNEX 2 RESEARCH METHODS USED IN THE STUDY
ANNEX 3 INDICATORS OF VULNERABILITY CONSTRUCTED FROM THE SURVEY DATA
ANNEX 4 INCIDENCE RATE OF VULNERABILITY BY SUB-GROUP
ANNEX 5 SECTOR-LEVEL INFORMATION ON WHERE CONSUMERS GET INFORMATION WHEN COMPARING DEALS
ANNEX 6 DETAILED ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY AND NON-VULNERABILITY ACROSS A NUMBER OF DIMENSIONS
ANNEX 7 CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF INDICATORS OF VULNERABILITY
ANNEX 8 DATA ANALYSIS UNDERTAKEN TO EXAMINE THE DRIVERS OF AND FACTORS LINKED TO CONSUMER VULNERABILITY
ANNEX 9 FACTOR ANALYSIS UNDERTAKEN IN THE VALIDATION OF THE OPERATIONALISATION OF VULNERABILITY
ANNEX 10 FINDINGS FROM THE IN-DEPTH CONSUMER INTERVIEWS
ANNEX 11 INTERVIEW LIST
ANNEX 12 TASK A2 INTERVIEW GUIDE
ANNEX 13 CONSUMER QUESTIONNAIRE AND BEHAVIOURAL EXPERIMENT
Author (Corp. Body): London Economics | VVA Consulting | Ipsos Mori consortium
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher | Europäische Kommission / Consumers, Health, Agriculture and Food Executive Agency
Year: 2016
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: Contract n° 2013 86 05 EAHC 2013/CP/08 | 978-92-9200-703-4 | EB-01-16-075-EN-N | 978-92-9200-704-1 | EB-04-16-037-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: energy industryEUfinancial marketconsumer protectionadvertising
Subject: European Community law in generalConsumption. Consumer protection
Countries Scheme: Europe. General ResourcesIcelandNorway
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Title: Study on consumers’ attitudes towards Terms and Conditions : (T&Cs) ; Final report
Title (other): Study on consumers’ attitudes towards online Terms and Conditions : (T&Cs) ; Executive Summary | Consumers’ attitudes
towards Terms and Conditions : (T&Cs) ; Fact sheet | Terms & Conditions :Tired of ticking without checking?
Abstract
Previous research has shown that when buying products and services online, the vast majority of consumers accept Terms and Conditions (T&Cs) without even reading them. The current research examined effects of interventions aimed at making consumers aware of the quality of such T&Cs. This was done by 1) shortening and simplifying the T&Cs and 2) adding a quality cue to an online store, such as the presence of a logo of a national consumer organisation accompanied by the statement “these terms and conditions are fair”. The main study consisted of three experiments and was conducted in 12 Member States with 1000 respondents in each Member State. In each experiment, consumers visited an online storeand went through all the steps of an ordering process. One of these steps was accepting the T&Cs. Key findings are that shortening and simplifying the terms and conditions results in improved readership of the T&Cs, a slightly better understanding of the T&Cs, and a more positive attitude towards the T&Cs. Moreover, adding a quality cue to an online store increases trust and purchase intentions. Which quality cue is trusted the most depends on what type of online store consumers are visiting. For domestic online stores, a quality cue by a national consumer organisation is trusted most; for foreign online stores, a quality cue by a European consumer organisation is trusted most. The patterns were similar across Member States.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
7.3 Experiment 1: Increasing transparency
7.4 Experiment 2: Effortless awareness
7.5Experiment 3: Effortless awareness
8 CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
APPENDIX A. DETAILED METHODOLOGIES
APPENDIX B. PRELIMINARY STUDY 1
APPENDIX C. PRELIMINARY STUDY 2
APPENDIX D. MAIN STUDY
APPENDIX E: TERMS AND CONDITIONS IN THE MAIN STUDY
APPENDIX F: COUNTRY-SPECIFIC RESULTS IN THE MAIN STUDY
| EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
1.1.1 Why are T&Cs lengthy and complex?
1.1.2 Why do consumers accept T&Cs blindly?1.2 Study purpose
1.3 Structure of the report
2 LITERATURE REVIEW: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF NON-READERSHIP
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Causes of non-readership
2.2.1 Cost/benefit beliefs
2.2.2 Normative beliefs
2.2.3 Control beliefs
2.2.4 Other causes of non-readership
2.3 Consequences of non-readership
3 POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS: INCREASING TRANSPARENCY AND CREATING EFFORTLESS AWARENESS
3.1 Increasing transparency
3.1.1 How to increase transparency
3.1.2 Reasons why traders may (not) want to increase transparency of T&Cs
3.2 Creating effortless awareness
3.2.1 Increasing general awareness of consumer rights
3.2.2 Increasing specific awareness of consumer rights
3.2.3 Adding quality cues on online stores as indicators of the substantive quality of terms and conditions
4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4.1General approach
4.2 Brief overview of the methodologies of the studies
4.2.1 Preliminary study 1
4.2.1 Preliminary study 2
4.2.3 Main study
5 PRELIMINARY STUDY 1: GENERAL AND SPECIFICAWARENESS OF CONSUMER RIGHTS
5.1 Online purchasing behaviour
5.2 Consumers’ awareness of their general rights
5.3 Alternative strategies to get informed about consumer rights and obligations
5.4 Experienced regret
6 PRELIMINARY ONLINE STUDY 2: QUALITY CUES AND CONSUMER DETRIMENT
6.1 Part 1: The use of quality cues to assess the reliability of T&Cs
6.2Part 2: Negative consequences of not being sufficiently informed about terms and conditions
6.3 Part 3: Consumer characteristics
7 THE MAIN STUDY
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Familiarity with online stores and consumer organisations
Author: Elshout, Maartje | Elsen, Millie | Leenheer, Jorna
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher | Ecorys | Universiteit van Tilburg | Universiteit van Amsterdam | GfK | Europäische Kommission / Consumers, Health, Agriculture and Food E
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Amt für Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2016
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: Specific Contract n° 2014 85 12 | Framework Contract -EAHC/2011/CP/Ol/ECORYS | 978-92-9200-706-5 | EB-01-16-117-EN-N | 978-00-00-00000-0 | NA-AD-14-001-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EUinternetpurchase patternsales contractconsumer educationconsumer protection
Subject: Consumption. Consumer protection
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
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Title: Milan BExpo 2015 : A behavioural study on food choices and eating habits ; Final report
Title (other): Milan BExpo 2015 : A behavioural study on food choices and eating habits ; Executive Summary | Supermarket of the future
: consumer choice and eating habits
Abstract
This behavioural study examined consumer choices in relation to food sustainability, and was carried out at the Milan Expo 2015 among EXPO visitors, by CentERdata, GFK, and Ecorys. This project examined two aspects related to consumer sustainability: consumer use of sustainability information and food waste.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1 INTRODUCTION
2FIELD STUDY
2.1 Background
2.2 Key results
2.3 Conclusions and suggestions for future research
3 LAB EXPERIMENT 1: DATE MARKING
3.1 Background
3.2 Key results
3.3 Conclusions and suggestions for future research on date marking
4 LAB EXPERIMENT 2: IMPERFECT FRUITS & VEGETABLES
4.1 Background
4.2 Key results
4.3 Conclusions and suggestions for future research on imperfect foods and vegetables
APPENDIX 1: BACKGROUND INFORMATION
3Lab study date marks
Lab study imperfect foods
APPENDIX II: EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP AND SAMPLE SIZE
Field study
Lab study imperfect foods
APPENDIX III: QUESTIONNAIRES FIELD STUDY
APPENDIX IV: QUESTIONNAIRES LAB STUDIES
APPENDIX V: STATISTICAL AND TECHNICAL APPENDIX
Statistical and technical information field study
Statistical and technical information lab study date marks
Statistical and technical information lab study imperfect foods
Statistical and technical information post-questionnaire
APPENDIX VI: STAKEHOLDERS’ EVENT
APPENDIX V: REFERENCES
Author: Elsen, Millie | Giesen, Roxanne van | Leenheer, Jorna
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher | Ecorys | Universiteit van Tilburg | GfK | Europäische Kommission / Consumers, Health, Agriculture and Food Executive Agency
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Amt für Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2015
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-44120-2 | DS-04-15-693-EN-N | Specific Contract n° 2014 85 09 | 978-92-79-51999-4 | DS-02-15-694-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: garbageEUgroceriessustainabilityfoodconsumer
Subject: Consumption. Consumer protectionFood and nutrition
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
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Title: Consumer market study on the functioning of the market for second-hand cars from a consumer perspective : Final Report ;
Part 1: Synthesis Report
Title (other): Consumer market study on the functioning of the market for second-hand cars from a consumer perspective : Final Report ;
Part 3: Mystery Shopping | Market study on the functioning of the marketfor second hand cars froma consumer perspective
Table of Contents
1 Executive summary

2 Introduction
2.1 Background
2.2 Research objectives
2.3 Approach
2.4Glossary
3 Issue 1: Dealers’ practices and compliance with the existing regulatory framework for selling second-hand cars
3.1 Existing regulatory framework
3.1.1 EU leve
3.1.2 National leve
3.2 Dealer practices
3.2.1 Pre-sales checks on the car
3.2.2 Information provided to the consumer
3.2.3 Car mileage check(s)
3.2.4 Guarantees
3.2.5 Sales contract
3.2.6 Disclaimers
3.2.7 Offering additional services and products
3.2.8 The role of trade associations & quality labels
3.3 Dealers’ practices and compliance with the existing regulatory framework for selling second-hand cars: Summary
4 Issue 2: Consumers and their search for a second-hand car -information sources and the decision-making process
4.1Decision-making process
4.1.1 Steps in the decision-making process
4.1.2 Reasons for buying a second-hand car
4.1.3 Reasons for choosing a specific second-hand car
4.1.4 Checks on second-hand cars
4.2 Information sources
4.2.1 Sources of information used
4.2.2 Usefulness of sources of information
4.2.3 Evaluation of internet car portals
4.2.4 Purchasing a second-hand car online
4.3 Choosing a sales channel and car trader
4.3.1 Main reasons for choosing a dealership
4.3.2 Main reason for choosing a franchise dealership
4.3.3 Main reason for choosing an independent dealership
4.3.4 Main reason for choosing an auction
4.3.5 Membership of trade associations, trustmarks/ quality labels, connection to car brand and use of disclaimers
| 4.4 Consumer confidence and knowledge
4.4.1 Consumer knowledge
4.4.2 Consumer confidence
4.4.3 Vulnerable consumers
4.5 Improving information for second-hand car consumers
4.6 Consumers and their search for a second hand car –information sources and the decision-making process: Summary
5 Issue 3: Problems, complaints, complaint handling and dispute resolution
5.1 Problems experienced by consumers
5.1.1 Types of problems experienced
5.1.2 Guarantee covering the problem
5.1.3 Time between purchase and problem
5.1.4 Cost of problems
5.1.5 Consumer detriment due to problems
5.2 Complaints
5.3 Complaint handling
5.3.1 Consumer satisfaction with complaint handling
5.4 Unfair commercial practices
5.4.1 Consumer survey insights
5.4.2 Mystery shopping insights
5.4.3 Complaints about unfair commercial practices
5.5 Out-of-court dispute resolution entities
5.6 Problems, complaints, complaint handling and disputeresolution: Summary
6 Issue 4: Market features –supply and demand structure, cross-border trade, prices
6.1 Supply and demand structure
6.1.1 The role of leasing in the second-hand car market
6.1.2 The role of insurance in the second-hand car market
6.1.3Trader type
6.1.4 Cross-border trade
6.1.5 Car brands / models
6.1.6 Fuel type
6.1.7 Car age
6.1.8 Car mileage
6.2 Second-hand car pricing
6.2.1 Price paid for the second-hand car
6.2.2 Pricing analysis
6.3 Market features –supply and demand structure, cross-border trade, prices: Summary
7 Overall Assessment
7.1 Assessment of the information and advice provided by the dealer
7.2 Consumer satisfaction post-purchase
7.3 Market performance
| 8 Conclusions & Recommendations
8.1 Dealer practices
8.1.1 Limited information about history and condition of second-hand cars
8.1.2 Odometer fraud
8.1.3 Legal and commercial guarantees
8.2 Level of consumer understanding and searching
8.3 Post-purchase experiences
8.4 Markets and prices
8.5 Focusing on vulnerable second-hand car consumers
8.6 Paths for future research
9 Appendix 1: Methodology
9.1 Task 1B: stakeholder survey
9.2 Task 2: consumer survey
9.2.1 Sample size & survey timeline
9.2.2 Sample profile & weighting
9.2.3 Questionnaire topics
9.3 Task 3: price collection
9.3.1 Sample size & timeline
9.4 Task 4: mystery shopping
9.4.1 Sample achieved & timeline
9.4.2 Questionnaire topics
10 Appendix 2: EU regulatory framework
3: Value of time (VOT) used to calculate consumer detriment
| Part 3
1 Mystery shopping methodology
1.1 Fieldwork challenges
1.2 Sample achieved & timeline
1.2.1 Car brand
1.2.2 Car age
1.2.3 Car mileage
1.3 Questionnaire topics
2 Search for a second-hand car
2.1 Information sources
2.1.1 Information sources consulted2.2 Evaluation of advert
2.2.1 Price communicated in advert
2.2.2 Photographs
2.2.3 Information about previous owner
2.2.4 Transmission
2.2.5 Full service history
2.2.6 Engine size
2.2.7 Fuel type
2.2.8 Extra information
2.2.9 Usefulness of advert consulted
2.3 Evaluation of internet car portals
2.4 Summary: search for a second-hand car
3 Dealer practices
3.1 Inspecting the car itself before the dealer
3.1.1 Differences versus the car seen in the advert
3.1.2 Disclaimers
3.1.3 Type of disclaimer603.2Information provided spontaneously by dealer623.2.1Focus on consumer rights to a legal guarantee
3.3 Prompted information
3.3.1 Focus on car mileage checks
3.4 Price and discount information
3.4.1 Price
3.4.2 Discount
3.5 Additional services and products unprompted
3.5.1 Focus on the commercial guarantee
3.5.2 Focus on extra information
3.6 Unfair commercial practices
3.7 Assessment of the information or advice provided by the dealer
3.8 Summary: dealer practices
Author (Corp. Body): GfK Belgium
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher | Europäische Kommission / Consumers, Health, Agriculture and Food Executive Agency
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Amt für Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2014
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-45691-6 | No EAHC/FWC/2013 85 01 | DS-01-15-080-EN-N | 978-92-79-45692-3 | DS-01-15-082-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EUsecondhand merchandisecommercemotor vehicleconsumer protectionsalesman
Subject: Markets. CompetitionConsumption. Consumer protection
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
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Title: Study on the coverage, functioning and consumer use of comparison tools and third-party verification schemes for such
tools : Final report
Abstract
In March 2013 the Report from the Multi-Stakeholder Dialogue on Comparison Tools was presented at the European Consumer Summit. The report highlighted challenges and shortcomings in the functioning of comparison tools, particularly with regards to the transparency and impartiality of comparisons, the quality of information provided, the comprehensiveness and user-friendliness of comparison tools, the reliability of user reviews, consumer redress and enforcement of existing provisions.In September 2013, Ipsos, London Economics and Deloitte were commissioned to conduct a study on the comparison tool sector in order to:Explore consumer behavioural patterns in the use of comparison tools and their influence on consumers’ decision-making;Conduct an extensive mapping exercise of the comparison tools available in the EU accompanied by a survey on consumer perception and experience of comparison tools (analysis by sector and by country); Carry-out an analysis of existing accreditation and trustmark schemes for comparison tools; Highlight how improvements can be made to ensure comparison tools are reliable, transparent and user-friendly and benefit consumers.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
Executive summary
1 Introduction and background
2 Methodology
2.1 Mapping and evaluation of comparison tools
2.1.1 Identification of comparison tools
2.1.2 Notes on search strings
2.1.3 Evaluation of the comparison tools
2.1.4 Limits to the approach to the evaluation of the comparison tools
2.2 Methodology for mapping Third-Party Verification Schemes
.2.1 Mapping and analysis of Third-Party Verification Schemes
2.2.2 Limits of the evaluation of Third-Party Verification Schemes
2.3 Methodology for consultation with stakeholders
2.4 Methodology of the consumer survey
2.5 Behavioural experiments
2.5.1 Experiment 1
2.5.2 Experiment 2
2.5.3 Experiment 3
2.6 Methodology of the mystery shopping exercise
2.6. Markets and countries covered in the exercise
2.6.2 Type of research
2.6.3 Number of price comparisons websites and mystery shops
2.6.4 Supplier website visits
2.6.5 Personalised pricing
2.6.6 Analysis of the results of the mystery shopping exercise
3 General perception of comparison tools
3.1 Usage and perception of comparison tools
3.1.1 E-commerce shortfalls
3.1.2 Comparison tool shortfalls
3.2 Decision-making biases and consumer behaviour in the context of comparison tools
4 Mapping of comparison tools and third-party verification schemes
4.1 Results from the mapping exercise
4.1.1 Breakdown of multi-sector comparison tools by sector combination
4.1.2 What do these results tell us about the commercial aspects of comparison tools?
4.1.3 Whooperates comparison tool websites, and what do they do?
4.1.4 Ranking values given on comparison tools
4.1.5 Important consumer information available on comparison tools
4.1.6 The great unknowns
4.2 Further analysis of comparison tool revenue streams and sourcing of data
4.2.1 Revenue streams
4.2.2 Sourcing of data
4.2.3 Summary
| 4.3 Mapping and evaluation of comparison tool third-party verification schemes
4.3.1 Trustmarks for e-commerce websites
4.3.2 Sector and national initiatives to create third-party verification for comparison tools
4.3.3 European initiatives to create third-party verification of comparison tools
4.3.4 Mapping of third-party verification schemes
4.3.5 Description of third-party verification schemes
4.3.6 Stakeholder perspectives of third-party verification schemes
4.3.7 Summary
5 Consumer perception and use of comparison tools
5.1 Awareness, frequency of use and motivations
5.1.1 Online purchasing
5.1.2 Awareness of comparison tools
5.1.3 Ways of getting informed about comparison tools
5.1.4 Frequency of using comparisons tools
5.1.5 Types of products/services for which comparison tools were used
5.1.6 Reasons for using comparison tools
5.1.7 Reasons for not using comparison tools
5.2 Consumer pathway to comparison tools
5.2.1 Online purchase intentions
5.2.2 Experiment 1 analysis
5.2.3 Results for the electricity sector
5.2.4 Results for the travel sector
5.3 Characteristics of importance for consumers
5.3.1 Most important characteristics of comparison tools
5.3.2 Observations from experiment 2
5.4 Consumer’s perception of comparison tools
5.4.1 Type of comparisons tools used
5.4.2 Perceptions of three different types of comparisons tools
5.4.3 Consumers’ experiences when using comparison tools
5.4.4 Users’ perception of comparison tools
5.4.5 Most appropriate way to protect consumers when using comparison tools
5.5 Understanding and impact of third-party verification schemes
5.5.1 Characteristics that should be guaranteed by verification schemes
5.5.2 Most suitable organisation to run verification schemes
5.5.3 Most suitable organisation to run comparison tools
5.5.4 Observations from experiment 2 on the impact of verification schemes
5.6 Impact of comparison tools on purchasing decisions
| 5.6.1 Impact of comparison tools on the online purchase intention
5.6.2 Observations from experiment 3
6 Practical functioning of comparison tools and shortcomings identified
6.1 Feedback from consumers on main problems encountered
6.1.1 Types of problems encountered when using comparison tools
6.1.2 Consumer’s response when experiencing an issue
6.1.3 Reasons for not taking any actions to solve the issue encountered
6.2 Results of the mystery shopping
6.2.1 Business model and compliance with existing legislation
6.2.2 Accessibility and user-friendliness
6.2.3 Ranking and search functions
6.2.4 Quality of information provided
6.2.5 Personalised pricing
7 EU consumer law and comparison tools
7.1 List of applicable consumer protection legislation and official guidance documents
7.2 General Remarks on applicability
7.2.1 Business/trader
7.2.2 Public bodies
7.2.3 Consumer organisations
7.3 Horizontal measures
7.3.1 Unfair Commercial Practices Directive (+Guidance on UCPD –2009)
7.3.2 Consumer Rights Directive and the Guidelines to the Directive (2014)
7.3.3 Misleading and Comparative Advertising Directive
7.3.4 E-Commerce Directive
7.3.5 Price Indication Directive
7.3.6 Unfair Contract Terms Directive
7.4Vertical measures and sectoral legislation
7.5 Summary
8 Study conclusions and recommendations
8.1 Comparison of findings with MSDCT recommendations
8.2 Overall study recommendations
Annex 1: Consumer Survey -Sample Profile
Annex 2: Behavioural experiment
Annex 3: Consumer Survey -Tables
Author (Corp. Body): ECME Consortium
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Consumers, Health, Agriculture and Food Executive Agency | DELOITTE
Year: 2014
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: EAHC/FWC/2013 85 07
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: counselingcounseling techniqueevaluationEUconsumerconsumer counselingconsumer protection
Subject: Consumption. Consumer protection
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Management Plan 2019 : Directorate-General for Justice and Consumers
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION
PART 1. MAIN OUTPUTS FOR THE YEAR
PART 2. MAIN ORGANISATIONAL MANAGEMENT OUTPUTS FOR THE YEAR
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher
Year: 2018
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: Ref. Ares(2018)6563943
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Programme und Statuten
Keyword: EUEuropean Commissionjudiciarymanagementplanningconsumer
Subject: European Community institutionsLaw. Jurisprudence. Legal systemsConsumption. Consumer protection
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Das Barometer zur Lage der Verbraucher : Die Verbraucher im Binnenmarkt ; Ausgabe 2015
Title (other): Arbeitsunterlage der Kommissionsdienststellen : Das Barometer zur Lage der Verbraucher ; Die Verbraucher und der
Binnenmarkt ; Ausgabe 2015
Abstract
Verbraucherbarometer sind ein wichtiges Instrument zur Überwachung der Lage der Verbraucher im Binnenmarkt und enthalten Informationen, die auf nationaler und auf europäischer Ebene in vielfältige Bereiche der Politik einfließen. Sie sind insoweit einzigartig, als sie Trends unter Berücksichtigung aller EU-Mitgliedstaaten (sowie Islands und Norwegens) über einen bestimmten Zeitraum einander gegenüberstellen. Zwei Typen von Barometern sind zu unterscheiden, die jeweils im Abstand von zwei Jahren veröffentlicht werden: Das Verbraucherbarometer beschreibt die Entwicklung wichtiger Verbrauchermärkte und das vorliegende Barometer zur Lage der Verbraucher befasst sich mit der Verbraucherlage in den einzelnen Ländern und erläutert den Stand der Integration des EU-Einzelhandelsmarkts.[Autor siehe Copyright]
Table of Contents
I. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG
1.Methodische Verbesserungen
2.Wesentliche Ergebnisse
II. MESSUNG DER VERBRAUCHERLAGE
III. Lage der Verbraucher auf nationaler und grenzüberschreitender Ebene
1.Wissen und Vertrauen
1.1 Wissen über die Rechte von Verbrauchern und über maßgebliche Rechtsvorschriften
1.2 Vertrauen in Organisationen
1.3 Vertrauen in Rechtsschutzmechanismen
1.4 Vertrauen in die Produktsicherheit
1.5 Vertrauen in Aussagen zum Umweltschutz
2. Einhaltung und Durchsetzung
2.1. Unlautere Geschäftspraktiken
2.2 Sonstige rechtswidrige Handelspraktiken
2.3 Einhaltung des Verbraucherrechts
2.4 Durchsetzung der Vorschriften zum Verbraucherrecht und zur Produktsicherheit
3. Beschwerden und Streitbeilegung
3.1 Beschwerden bei Problemen
3.2 Zufriedenheit mit der Handhabung von Beschwerden
3.3 Indikator „Probleme und Beschwerden“
3.4 Kenntnis, Nutzung und Förderung von Mechanismen zur alternativen Streitbeilegung
3.5 Dauer von Gerichtsverfahren
IV. DIE VERBRAUCHER UND DER BINNENMARKT
1. Der elektronische Handel zwischen Unternehmen und Verbrauchern in der EU
1.1 Online-Einkäufe im Inland und im grenzüberschreitenden Handel
1.2 Online-Verkäufe im Inland und im grenzüberschreitenden Handel
1.3 Online gekaufte/verwendete Produkte
1.4 Volumen des elektronischen Handels zwischenUnternehmen und Verbrauchern
2. Der Kaufprozess im Online-Handel
2.1 Verfahrensweisen und Zeitaufwand für Recherchen bei Online-Einkäufen
2.2 Gründe für die Wahl einer Website/eines Appstore/einer App
2.3 Geräte und Zahlungsmethoden beim Online-Shopping
2.4 Lieferbedingungen
3.Triebkräfte und Hindernisse für den Online-Handel
3.1 Nachfrageseitige Faktoren
3.2. Angebotsseitige Faktoren
4.Probleme und Beschwerden
4.1 Probleme bei Online-Geschäftsvorgängen
4.2. Beschwerden bei Problemen und Zufriedenheit mit der Handhabung von Beschwerden
| 4.3 Bei Europäischen Verbraucherzentren eingegangene Beschwerden im Zusammenhang mit grenzüberschreitenden Online-Einkäufen
4.4 Ergebnisse von Online-Kontrollen auf Einhaltung geltender Vorschriften auf den wichtigsten Verbrauchermärkten
V. Für die Verbraucherlage massgebliche Faktoren und Zusammenhänge
1. Zusammenhang zwischen der Verbraucherlage und wirtschaftlichen Indikatoren, gesellschaftlichen Indikatoren und Governance-Indikatoren
2 Auswirkungen soziodemografischer Faktoren auf die Verbraucherlage
ANHANG I
Länderbezogene Verbraucherstatistiken
ANHANG II
Verbraucherlage-Index
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher
Year: 2016
Language: de
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: evaluationserviceEUcommercemarket researchonline servicelegal usageconsumer
consumer protection
Subject: Trade. Service industryMarkets. CompetitionConsumption. Consumer protection
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: 2018 Annual Activity Report : DG Justice and Consumers
Title (other): Annexes
Abstract
This report lays out the work and performance of DG JUST in in 2018, the final full year before the end of the current Commission mandate. It covers a wide range of activities in the areas of civil and commercial justice, criminal justice, fundamental rights and the rule of law, Equality and citizenship and Consumers....The Annual Activity Report is a management report of the Director-General of DG Justice and Consumers to the College of Commissioners. Annual Activity Reports are the main instrument of management accountability within the Commission and constitutes the basis on which the College takes political responsibility for the decisions it takes as well as for the coordinating, executive and management functions it exercises, as laid down in the Treaties.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
THE DG IN BRIEF
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
A) KEY RESULTS AND PROGRESS TOWARDS THE ACHIEVEMENT OF GENERAL AND SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF THE DG(EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF SECTION 1)
B) KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS (KPIS)
C) KEY CONCLUSIONS ON FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT AND INTERNAL CONTROL (EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OFSECTION 2.1)
D) PROVISION OF INFORMATION TO THE COMMISSIONER(S)
1. KEY RESULTS AND PROGRESS TOWARDS THE ACHIEVEMENT OF GENERAL AND SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF THE DG
2. ORGANISATIONAL MANAGEMENT AND INTERNAL CONTROL
2.1 FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT AND INTERNAL CONTROL
2.1.1 CONTROL RESULTS
2.1.2 AUDIT OBSERVATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
2.1.3 ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
2.1.4 CONCLUSIONS ON THE IMPACT AS REGARDS ASSURANCE
2.1.5 DECLARATION OF ASSURANCE [AND RESERVATIONS]
DECLARATION OF ASSURANCE
2.2 OTHER ORGANISATIONAL MANAGEMENT DIMENSIONS
2.2.1 HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
2.2.2 BETTER REGULATION (ONLY FOR DGS MANAGING REGULATORY ACQUIS)
2.2.3 INFORMATION MANAGEMENT ASPECTS
2.2.4 EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION ACTIVITIES
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher
Year: 2019
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: Ref. Ares(2019)2459053 | Just_aar_2018_final | DGJUST_aar_2018_annexes_draft
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Geschäfts- und Jahresberichte
Keyword: reportEUEuropean Commissionjudiciaryworkconsumer
Subject: European Community institutionsLaw. Jurisprudence. Legal theoryConsumption. Consumer protection
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: 2017 Annual Activity Report : DG Justice and Consumers
Title (other): Annexes
Abstract
The policies of DG Justice and Consumers (DG JUST) guarantee the fundamental rights and freedoms of EU citizens in a Union of rule of law and democracy as well as their rights to participate in the internal market. In 2017 the DG has continued to deliver on its work programme in a timely manner. The work of the DG is summarised in this report....The Annual Activity Report is a management report of the Director-General of DG Justice and Consumers to the College of Commissioners. Annual Activity Reports are the main instrument of management accountability within the Commission and constitutes the basis on which the College takes political responsibility for the decisions it takes as well as for the coordinating, executive and management functions it exercises, as laid down in the Treaties.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
The DG in brief
Executive Summary
A) KEY RESULTS AND PROGRESS TOWARDS THE ACHIEVEMENT OF GENERAL AND SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF THE DG(EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF SECTION 1)
B) KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS (KPIS)
C) KEY CONCLUSIONS ON FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT AND INTERNAL CONTROL (EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OFSECTION 2.1)
D) PROVISION OF INFORMATION TO THE COMMISSIONER
1. Key results and progress towards the achievement of general and specific objectives of the DG
2. ORGANISATIONAL Management and InterNAL CONTROL
2.1 FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT AND INTERNAL CONTROL
2.1.1 CONTROL RESULTS
2.1.2 AUDIT OBSERVATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
2.1.3 ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
2.1.4 CONCLUSIONS AS REGARDS ASSURANCE
2.1.5 DECLARATION OF ASSURANCE AND RESERVATIONS
Declaration of Assurance
2.2 OTHER ORGANISATIONAL MANAGEMENT DIMENSIONS
2.2.1 HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
2.2.2 BETTER REGULATION
2.2.3 INFORMATION MANAGEMENT ASPECTS
2.2.4 EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION ACTIVITIES
Annexes
ANNEX 1: STATEMENT OF THE RESOURCES DIRECTOR
ANNEX 2: REPORTING – HUMAN RESOURCES, BETTER REGULATION, INFORMATION MANAGEMENT AND EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION
ANNEX 3: DRAFT ANNUAL ACCOUNTS AND FINANCIAL REPORTS
ANNEX 4: MATERIALITY CRITERIA
ANNEX 5: INTERNAL CONTROL TEMPLATE(S) FOR BUDGET IMPLEMENTATION (ICTS)
ANNEX 9: EVALUATIONS AND OTHER STUDIES FINALISED OR CANCELLED DURING THE YEAR
ANNEX 10: SPECIFIC ANNEXES RELATED TO "FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT"
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher
Year: 2018
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: Ref. Ares(2018)1773082 | just_aar_2017_final
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Geschäfts- und Jahresberichte
Keyword: reportEUEuropean Commissionjudiciaryworkconsumer
Subject: European Community institutionsLaw. Jurisprudence. Legal theoryConsumption. Consumer protection
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: 2016 Annual Activity Report : DG Justice and Consumers
Title (other): Annexes
Abstract
The EU citizens are at the heart of DG Justice and Consumers' policies which guarantee their fundamental rights and freedoms as well as their rights to participate in the internal market in a Union of rule of law and democracy. In 2016 the DG has continued to deliver on the DG's work programme in a timely manner. In addition, an important task was to effectively meet the challenges that common European values encountered in 2016. The work is summarised in this report....The Annual Activity Report is a management report of the Director-General of DG Justice and Consumersto the College of Commissioners. Annual Activity Reports are the main instrument of management accountability within the Commission and constitutes the basis on which the College takes political responsibility for the decisions it takes as well as for the coordinating, executive and management functions it exercises, as laid down in the Treaties.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
THE DG IN BRIEF
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
A) KEY RESULTS AND PROGRESS TOWARDS THE ACHIEVEMENT OF GENERAL AND SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF THE DG(EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OFSECTION 1)
B) KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS (KPIS)
C )KEY CONCLUSIONS ON FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT AND INTERNAL CONTROL (EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OFSECTION 2.1)
D) INFORMATION TO THE COMMISSIONER
1. KEY RESULTS AND PROGRESS TOWARDS THE ACHIEVEMENT OF GENERAL AND SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF THE DG
2. ORGANISATIONAL MANAGEMENT AND INTERNAL CONTROL
2.1 FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT AND INTERNAL CONTROL
2.1.1 CONTROL RESULTS
2.1.2 AUDIT OBSERVATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
2.1.3 ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
2.1.4 CONCLUSIONS AS REGARDS ASSURANCE
DECLARATION OF ASSURANCE
2.2 OTHER ORGANISATIONAL MANAGEMENT DIMENSIONS
2.2.1 HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
2.2.2 BETTER REGULATION
2.2.3 INFORMATION MANAGEMENT ASPECTS
2.2.4 EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION ACTIVITIES
2.2.5 EXAMPLES OF INITIATIVES TO IMPROVE ECONOMY AND EFFICIENCY OF FINANCIAL AND NON-FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES
ANNEXES
ANNEX 1: STATEMENT OF THE RESOURCES DIRECTOR
ANNEX 2: REPORTING –HUMAN RESOURCES,BETTER REGULATION,INFORMATION MANAGEMENT AND EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION
ANNEX 3: DRAFT ANNUAL ACCOUNTSAND FINANCIAL REPORTS
ANNEX 4: MATERIALITY CRITERIA
ANNEX 5: INTERNAL CONTROL TEMPLATE(S)FOR BUDGET IMPLEMENTATION (ICTS)
ANNEX 9: EVALUATIONS AND OTHER STUDIES FINALISED OR CANCELLED DURING THE YEAR
ANNEX 10: SPECIFIC ANNEXES RELATED TO "FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT"
ANNEX 12: PERFORMANCE TABLES
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher
Year: 2017
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: Ref. Ares(2017)2038766 | just_aar_2016_final | just_aar_2016_annex
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Geschäfts- und Jahresberichte
Keyword: reportEUEuropean Commissionjudiciaryworkconsumer
Subject: European Community institutionsLaw. Jurisprudence. Legal theoryConsumption. Consumer protection
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
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