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Title: Elargissement de l'Union européenne : faits et enjeux maritimes et portuaires
Abstract
The study analyses the characteristics of maritime transport in the 10 countries that will join the EU in 2004. The Baltic ports are regrouping in order to become a corridor for East-West transit. The result of their location is a service dominated by feeder lines, i.e. low volumes and fragmented stopovers distributed over short distances. The service is in general weekly or twice weekly, to and from the ports in the North of the EU or the transhipment ports of Scandinavia. Thus, regional connections and very specialised companies are emerging, such as for example the Northern Container Line (Latvia), almost exclusively dedicated to the transport of Ikea's 65 weekly containers. The Polish and Baltic ports are particularly dependent on their hinterland. For example, one third of Polish exports pass through the Gdynia-Gdansk complex. If Gdansk is Poland's oil port, Gdynia is the pole for "containers and miscellaneous goods" and Szczecin the dry bulk cargo centre. A legacy of the socialist period, the Baltic ports drain on average 44% of the traffic from and to the Commonwealth of Independent States, evaluated at more than 95 million tons. This share rises to even more than 70% for containers, chemicals and oil. For example, 90% of the activity of Tallin, the closest port to Moscow, is concerned with servicing Russia and Belarus; and Ventspils (Latvia) handles 12% of all the petroleum products exported by Russia. These ports are in a fragile position. Russia is putting up intense competition in order to recover part of the traffic. The competition between ports is accentuated even more on the one hand by the "Via Baltica" road project, a Trans-European corridor which will connect Warsaw to Helsinki, and on the other by the Finnish Helsinki-St Petersburg-Moscow link project. Sectoral diversification and the expansion of container traffic seems a possible source of development. In Poland the principal issues at stake are very different. Firstly, they concern the modernisation of infrastructures and land links, a ma
Author: Lacoste, Romuald | Mas, Sylvie | Terrassier, Nicolas
Series Title: Institut Supérieur d'Economie Maritime / Synthese; 54
Publisher: Institut Supérieur d'Economie Maritime
Year: 2003
Language: fr
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: Baltic StatesEU expansionseaMediterranean regionPolandtransportation
Subject: ECSC - Euratom - European Community research centresTransport networksFreight
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Institut Supérieur d'Economie Maritime (http://www.isemar.asso.fr/)
Title: Natura 2000 in the Boreal Region
Abstract
With its endless expanse of coniferous forests, mires and lakes, the Boreal Region forms part of a distinct band of vegetation which circles the entire northern hemisphere. Habitat types blend seamlessly into one another, creating a characteristic mosaic landscape of forests and wetlands. Along the coast, bedrock archipelagos intermingle with lowlying brackish fens and meadows, providing ideal nesting grounds for hundreds of thousands of migratory birds. The Boreal Region of the European Union includes most of Sweden and Finland, all of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and much of the Baltic Sea. It has a relatively fl at topography, mostly below 500 m. To the north, the zone merges with the forest-tundra of the Arctic, to the west the ground rises up onto the Fennoscandian mountains and, in the south, there is a transition to the deciduous forests of the Continental Region. Forests cover around 60% of the region and dominate the landscape. The majority is used commercially and is, consequently, of reduced conservation value compared to the original natural old-growth forests, which now account for less than 5–10% of the resource. The dominant forest type, known as western taiga, contains a mixture of Norway spruce Picea abies and Scots pine Pinus sylvestris.[Author vide copyright]
Author: Sundseth, Kerstin
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Umwelt | European Commission / Directorate General for the Environment
Publisher: Europäische Gemeinschaften / Amt für Amtliche Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2009
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-11726-8 | KH-78-09-634-EN-C
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EU environmental policyNature reserveForestBaltic StatesEUsustainable developmentNorthern EuropeBaltic region
Scandinaviaenvironmental policy
Subject: Protection of the environment
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://europa.eu.int/)
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