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Title: Study on the development of statistical data on the European security technological and industrial base : Final Report
Abstract
In light of the challenges and needs, this study was launched with the overall aim to contribute to the development of statistical data that provide a clear picture of the technological and industrial base of the security industry in the EU. At the same time, the study has also served to contribute to the development of statistical data on the security services sector.The study was divided into two phases:The ‘Definition Phase’ which covered preparatory activities,included the formulation of a definition and delineation of the security sector. Based on this work, an inventory was made of various options available for collection and quantification of the security sector, together with an assessment of the feasibility of implementing these options. Based on this assessment, which was validated in a workshop and confirmed by the European Commission, the approach to adopted for the development of statistical data was selected;The ‘Implementation Phase’ which covered the implementation of the quantification exercise. This exercise consisted of a combination of a the analysis of existing statistical data and a company survey conducted in seven Member States (DE, EE, ES, FR, IT, PL, UK), with the purpose ofincreasingthe understanding of the structure and conduct of the security sector in the EU. The results were extrapolated to arrive at an assessment of the size, structure and performance of the overall EU security industry sector and market.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Background
Methodology and approach
Findings from publicly available statistical data
Findings from the Security Sector Survey
Estimation of the overall size of the EU security industry
1 Introduction
1.1 General Context
1.2 Aim of this study
1.3 Methodology
1.3.1 Definition Phase
1.3.2 Implementation Phase
1.4 Structure of the report
2 Delineation and segmentation of the security sector
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Delineation and segmentation of the sector
2.2.1 Security definitions
2.2.2 Conceptual segmentation and delineation
2.2.3 Security threats and risks
2.2.4 Security risk and threat domains
2.2.5 Security actors
2.2.6 Security response cycle
2.2.7 Security tools (products & services)
3 Overview of data available in statistics
3.1 Private security services sector
3.1.1 Company structure
3.1.2 Number of companies
3.1.3 Employment
3.1.4 Turnover
3.2 Public security services sector
3.2.1 Police forces
3.2.2 Firefighters
3.3 EU overview
4 Comparative analysis of survey results
4.1 Survey - introduction
4.2 Comparative analysis
4.2.1 Security “threat” categories
4.2.2 Industry segmentation
4.2.3 Security market segmentation
4.2.4 Firm structure and size
4.2.5 Turnover growth
4.2.6 Competition
| 5 Estimation of national aggregate employment and turnover and extrapolation to EU level
5.1 Methodology for estimation of national level aggregate turnover and employment
5.1.1 Basic approach
5.1.2 Other underlying assumptions
5.1.3 Sub-groups and variants
5.2 Comparison of survey-based employment and turnover estimates
5.2.1 Employment(average number of employees per firm)
5.2.2 Turnover (average turnover per firm)
5.2.3 Turnover per employee
5.3 Estimates of aggregate national employment and turnover
5.3.1 Aggregate national employment and turnover (all security)
5.3.2 Aggregate national employment and turnover by broad industry category
5.4 Estimated total size of the EU security industry
6 Estimation of the breakdown of turnover and employment by products and services, business activities and markets
6.1 Methodologies for estimation of the breakdown of turnover and employment
6.1.1 Estimation of the breakdown of turnover and employment by product and service type
6.1.2 Estimation of the breakdown of turnover and employment by business activity
6.1.3 Estimation of the breakdown of turnover and employment by market segment
6.2 Estimates of the breakdown of turnover and employment by security products and services, business activities and markets
6.2.1 ‘Other’ security products
6.2.2 ‘Other’ security services
6.2.3 Cyber security services and products
Annex I: Comparative Tables
Annex II: Ecorys Survey on the Structure of the Security Industry (Ecorys SSS) - questionnaire
Author (Corp. Body): Ecorys
Contributer: TNO | Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Migration und Inneres | DECISION
Year: 2015
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: data securityserviceEUfire brigadeGreat Britaininternetpolicesecurity
security policyespionagestatisticsenterprise
Subject: European Community law in general
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
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Title: Strategic input for 2016 - 2017 Work Programme : Secure Societies ; Protecting freedom and security of Europe and its
citizens
Abstract
The Secure Societies Advisory Group (SSAG) has considered the strategic priorities that should shape the H2020 programme for the 2016/2017...[Author vide copyright]
Author (Corp. Body): Secure Societies Advisory Group
Contributer: Europäische Kommission
Year: 2014
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Programme und Statuten
Keyword: data securityserviceEUresearchsocietyhuman sciencesinformation technologyinnovation
internetsecuritytechnologyenterprise
Subject: European Communities and European Union in generalVarious information networks and systems
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
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Title: Study on Civil Security R&D in major third countries (SER3CO) : Final Report, within the Framework Contract of Security
Studies – ENTR/09/050
Abstract
Policy attention to the security industry increased substantially after the terrorist attacks in the U.S. on September 11th, 2001. With an increased demand for security, the global security market grew a tenfold to around €100 billion in 2011. Many studies expect that growth of the worldwide security market will continue to exceed the growth rate of world GDP.In summer 2012 the European Commission launched an action plan for an innovative and competitive security industry to enhance growth and increase employment in the EU’s security industry. Better understanding of the main competitive strengths and weaknesses of the security industries in the EU and in major other countries should facilitate the development of policy measures to generate a business environment that enables the EU security industry to keep its leading position.One of the main problems in the EU security market identified by the Commission is its fragmentation along national and sometimes even regional boundaries. One of the first steps to address this problem the Commission proposes is to set up an EU-wide certification system for airport screening (detection) equipment and for alarm systems 3. Insight in costs and benefits of harmonized certification schemes will provide essential information for establishing such schemes at the EU level....The study has been executed by a team of specialists from the framework consortium partners ECORYS, DECISION and TNO, in collaboration with associated partners FOI (Sweden), HCSS (the Netherlands) and PLANCONSULT (Austria). The latter were invited for their access to sources and contacts in respective countries.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
Executive Summary
1 Scope and objectives of the study
1.1 General Context – Background
1.2 Aims and Objectives of the study
1.3 Approach
1.4 Chapter Outline
2 Comparative overview of the security industry
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Global and European security market overview
2.2.1 General issues related to market size estimates
2.2.2 Security market taxonomy
2.2.3 Global and EU security market estimates
2.3 Overview of third country security markets
2.3.1 USA
2.3.2 Russia
2.3.3 Japan
2.3.4 South Korea
2.3.5 Israel
2.3.6 China
2.3.7 Brazil
2.4 Competitive position of the airport screening and alarm systems industries
2.4.1 Introduction
2.4.2 Overview of the airport screening sector
2.4.3 Overview of the intruder and fire alarms sector
2.5 Summary and conclusions
2.5.1 Competitive position of selected countries
2.5.2 Market attractiveness of selected countries
3 Alarm systems and airport screening equipment: certification and conformity assessment
3.1 Comparative overview of certification schemes around the world
3.1.1 Alarm systems
3.1.2 Airport screening equipment
3.2 EU Certification and conformity assessment – CBA alarm systems
3.2.1 Introduction
3.2.2 Baseline
3.2.3 Quantifying the baseline
3.2.4 Policy options
3.3 EU Certification and conformity assessment – CBA airport screening equipment
3.3.1 Baseline scenario
3.3.2 Quantifying the baseline
3.3.3 Policy options
4 Security R&D programmes
4.1 Introduction
4.2General context: overall R&D landscape and security environment
4.2.1 Security environment
4.2.2 National innovation system
4.3 Security R&D
4.3.1 Expenditures
4.3.2 Main actors
4.3.3 Thematic priorities
4.4 Lessons from the security R&D in major third countries and recommendations for the EU
Author (Corp. Body): Ecorys
Contributer: DECISION | TNO | Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Unternehmen und Industrie
Year: 2013
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: FU98407
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: defense mechanismBrazilChinaserviceEUendangermentindustrial sectorIsrael
Japanair trafficsecuritysecurity policySouth KoreaterrorismenterpriseUnited States of Americacompetition
Subject: European Community treaties and agreementsVarious information networks and systems
Countries Scheme: Europe. General ResourcesUSABrazilIsraelChinaJapan
Korea (South)
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Title: Study on measuring consumer detriment in the European Union : Final report ; Part 1 – Main report
Title (other): Study on measuring consumer detriment in the European Union : Executive Summary | Operational guidance document on
measuring personal consumer detriment : Developed as part of the Study on measuring consumer detriment in the European
Union
Abstract
This study developed a methodology to assess revealed personal consumer detriment that robustly measures and quantifies the incidence and magnitude of detriment at EU and national level, taking into account both pre- and post-redress financial detriment and non-financial detriment such as time loss and psychological detriment. It can be applied consistently across a broad array of markets as well as adapted to specific markets. An operational guidance document was developed to guide practitioners based on the work undertaken in this study. The methodology builds on previous studies in different countries and markets. Consumer surveys constitute the main data collection tool. The methodology was applied in six markets (mobile telephone services; clothing, footwear and bags; train services; large household appliances; electricity services; and loans, credit and credit cards) and four countries (France, Italy, Poland and the UK). Results were extrapolated to the EU28. The results show that, across the six markets covered, consumers suffered total pre-redress financial detriment of between EUR 15.4 billion and EUR 47.9 billion, post-redress financial detriment of between EUR 9.6 billion and EUR 33.3 billion and monetised time loss of between EUR 10.7 billion and EUR 25.0 billion over the last 12 months in the EU28.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION
2. OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE
2.1. Objectives
2.2. Study questions
2.3. Geographical scope and coverage
2.4. Time period
2.5. Thematic coverage and main tasks
2.6. Methodological tools applied
2.7. Main study phases
3. DEFINITION OF PERSONAL CONSUMER DETRIMENT
3.1. Background
3.2. Refinement of the definition
4. DEVELOPMENT OF THE APPROACH TO MEASURE PERSONAL CONSUMER DETRIMENT
4.1. Rationale for the survey-based approach
4.2. Markets subject to assessment
4.3. Countries subject to assessment
4.4. Key concepts concerning survey-based measurement of personal consumer detriment
4.5. Dimensions of consumer detriment
4.6. Development of the draft consumer survey questionnaire
4.7. Cognitive interviews
4.8. Pilot consumer survey
4.9. Final approach to measuring personal consumer detriment and extrapolating results
5. DEVELOPMENT OF THE APPROACH TO TRIANGULATION OF CONSUMER SURVEY RESULTS
5.1. Rationale for triangulation and related triangulation tools
5.2. Development of the survey of complaint handling bodies
5.3. Development of the mystery shopping exercise
5.4. Final approach to triangulation of results on consumer detriment
6. ASSESSMENT OF PERSONAL CONSUMER DETRIMENT IN SIX MARKETS
6.1. Implementation of the main consumer surveys
6.2. Incidence of personal consumer detriment overall and by country
6.3. Magnitude of personal consumer detriment overall and by country
6.4. Personal consumer detriment by socio-demographic group and factor/driver of consumer vulnerability
6.5. Magnitude of personal consumer detriment comparing purchases over the internet vs other sales channels and cross-border vs. domestic purchases
6.6. Estimation of magnitude of personal consumer detriment using the ‘fair price’ approach
6.7. Comparison of incidence and magnitude of financial detriment across modes
6.8. Contextual information and description of problems experienced by respondents
| 7. TRIANGULATION OF CONSUMER SURVEY RESULTS
7.1. Triangulation based on data from the European Commission harmonised complaints database and the survey of complaint handling bodies
7.2. Triangulation based on mystery shopping data
7.3. Conclusions of the triangulation
8. EXTRAPOLATION OF FINANCIAL DETRIMENT AND TIME LOSS DETRIMENT TO COUNTRY AND EU LEVEL
8.1. Country-level extrapolation
8.2. Extrapolation to EU28
9. OVERALL CONCLUSIONS OF THE STUDY
9.1. Conclusions on the development of the methodology
9.2. Conclusions on the application of the methodology
9.3. Recommendations on collection and analysis of data as well as consumer analysis at EU level
| 0. Introduction and overview
0.1. Aim of this guidance
0.2. Definition of personal consumer detriment
0.3. Key concepts concerning the measurement of personal consumer detriment
0.4. Overview of steps to apply the methodology
Step 1 - Definition of the scope of the data collection
1.1. Define the geographical scope of the assessment
1.2. Select the market(s) for assessment
1.3. Determine the required sample size and survey mode
1.4. Determine the additional data collection tool(s) to be used for triangulation of the results of the consumer survey, if necessary
1.5. Consider the need for additional data collection tool(s) for the assessment among specific vulnerable consumer groups or in very low penetration markets
Step 2 - Consumer survey questionnaire
2.1. Screener questions
2.2. Market module questions
2.3. Questions on socio-demographics and consumer expectations
Step 3 - Assessment of detriment, triangulation and extrapolation
3.1. Measure the incidence of detriment
3.2. Measure the magnitude of detriment
3.3. Context to the detriment measured
3.4. Triangulate results of consumer survey with other data sources, if relevant
3.5. Extrapolate results to country or for the entire EU, if relevant
Author (Corp. Body): Civic Consulting
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher | TNS Opinion | European Commission / Consumers, Health, Agriculture and Food Executive Agenc
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Amt für Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2017
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-9200-747-8 | EB-02-17-004-EN-N | 978-92-9200-745-4 | EB-02-17-003-EN-N | 978-92-9200-744-7 | EB-02-17-002-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: loanservicerailroadelectronic commerceelectronic marketEUFranceGreat Britain
Italyclothingcredit marketPolandtelephoneconsumer protection
Subject: European Community law in generalConsumption. Consumer protection
Countries Scheme: Europe. General ResourcesPolandItalyFranceUnited Kingdom
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Title: Screening report Serbia : Chapter 9 – Financial services
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Directorate General for Neighbourhood and Enlargement Negotiations
Year: 2016
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: MD 61/16
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: serviceEUjoining of the European Unionfiscal policySerbia
Subject: European Community external relationsTaxation. Fiscal policy
Countries Scheme: Serbia
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Title: Screening report Serbia : Chapter 3 – Right of Establishment and Freedom to Provide Services
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Directorate General for Neighbourhood and Enlargement Negotiations
Year: 2015
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: MD 50/15
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: serviceEUjoining of the European Unionfreedom of movementfreedom of establishmentSerbia
Subject: European Community external relationsTrade. Service industry
Countries Scheme: Serbia
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Title: Behavioural Study on the transparency of online platforms : Final report
Title (other): Behavioural Study on the transparency of online platforms : Executive summary
Abstract
The overall purpose of this Behavioural Study on the Transparency of Online Platforms is to understand the impact of enhanced transparency on consumer trust and behaviour in searching and selecting goods and services on online platforms in three specific areas:Area #1: The general criteria used by platform operators to decide which items are shown to users, in which order, and at what level of saliency, including the disclosure of ownership or contractual relationships that may influence these criteria.Area #2: The identity and the legal status of the contracting parties involved in transactions enabled or facilitated by the platforms (e.g. whether the consumer would be entering a contract with the platform provider or some other retailer or service provider and whether that person is acting as a trader within the meaning of EU consumer law or not).Area #3: The quality controls established by platform operators (or lack thereof) on user review, rating and endorsement systems, e.g. verification of origin and authenticity, incentives linked to entries, screening / censorship, right to rebuttal of affected parties, etc.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 POLICY CONTEXT AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
1.3 METHODOLOGICAL NOTE
1.4 STRUCTURE OF THIS REPORT
2 SEARCH RESULTS: PRESENTATION AND TRANSPARENCY
2.1 REGULATORY ASPECTS
2.2 CONSUMER PRACTICES AND PREFERENCE
2.3 EXPERIMENT ON THE PRESENTATION AND TRANSPARENCY OF SEARCH RESULTS
3 TRANSPARENCY ABOUT THE IDENTITY OF CONTRACTUAL PARTIES
3.1 REGULATORY ASPECTS
3.2 CONSUMER PRACTICES AND PREFERENCES
3.3 EXPERIMENT ON TRANSPARENCY REGARDING CONTRACTUAL IDENTITY
4 TRANSPARENCY OF CONSUMER REVIEW, RATING, AND ENDORSEMENT SYSTEMS
4.1 REGULATORY ASPECTS
4.2 CONSUMER PRACTICES AND PREFERENCES
4.3 EXPERIMENT ON TRANSPARENCY OF CONSUMER REVIEWS AND RATING
5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 OVERVIEW
5.2 POLICY OPTIONS
5.2.1 Transparency of content and presentation features of search results
5.2.2 Transparency about the identity of contractual parties
5.2.3 Transparency of consumer review, rating, and endorsement systems
5.3 TRANSPARENCY BY DESIGN
REFERENCES
ANNEXES
List of figures
List of tables
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission / Consumers, Health, Agriculture and Food Executive Agency
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher
Year: 2018
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: Specific contract No. 2016 85 04 | Framework contract No. Chafea 2015 CP 01 | 978-92-9200-879-6 | EB-04-18-277-EN-N | 978-92-9200-878-9 | EB-02-18-417-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: serviceEUcommerceinternetonline servicequality controllegal basistransparency
consumer protectionsellingeconomic development (on national level)
Subject: Trade. Service industryConsumption. Consumer protection
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
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Title: Study on consumers’ decision making in insurance services : a behavioural economics perspective ; Final report
Title (other): Study on consumers’ decision making in insurance services : a behavioural economics perspective ; Executive Summary |
Study on consumers’ decision making in insurance services : a behavioural economics perspective ; Annexes to the Final
Report | Study on consumers’ decision making in insurance services : a behavioural economics perspective ; Final report
– Country fiches
Abstract
The study had a threefold objective: Collecting data and evidence, testing a range of remedies to improve consumer decision-making and interest in cross-border offers, and estimating savings consumers could make. The preparatory phase involved the collection of qualitative and quantitative evidence on both demand for and supply of insurance and explored barriers and drivers of cross-border purchases, to support the design of the experimental phase; it consisted of desk-based research, stakeholder interviews, and focus groups. Task 2 involved a consumer survey conducted in conjunction with behavioural experiments, to provide quantitative evidence on consumers’ experiences in the market, the impact of contract features and the presentation of information on consumers’ decision-making, the interplay between contract features and behavioural traits, and consumers’ interest in and barriers to purchasing insurance cross-border. In particular, the experiments tested the effectiveness of remedies to improve consumer decision-making. The survey examined respondents’ behavioural characteristics, experience, and comprehension. Task 3 used the data and evidence collected to estimate potential savings for consumers that better choices may allow for the products studied. The study conclusions and recommendations address a number of general and cross-border insurance issues, such as the provision of information to consumers, the purchasing process, and levels of awareness and understanding.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION AND RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
1. INTRODUCTION AND RESEARCH OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.1. Countries covered in the study
1.2. Products covered in the study
METHODOLOGY
2. SUMMARY OF THE RESEARCH METHODS USED TO INFORM THIS STUDY
2.1. Desk-based research
2.2. Stakeholder interviews
2.3. Focus groups
2.4. Online experiment and survey
2.5. Design of the laboratory experiment and survey
2.6. Approach to measuring potential savings consumers could make
EVIDENCE AND FINDINGS
3. FEATURES OF THE NON-LIFE INSURANCE MARKET
3.1. Non-life insurance market data
3.2. Insurers’ practices and distribution channels
3.3. Cross-border selling
4. CONSUMER DECISION-MAKING IN THE NON-LIFE INSURANCE MARKET
4.1. The consumer decision-making framework
4.2. Insights into consumer decision-making from behavioural economics
4.3. Situations in which consumers decide to buy or renew insurance
4.4. Finding and using information when shopping for insurance
4.5. Consumers’ preferred sales channels
4.6. Consumers’ use of insurance post-sale
4.7. Factors potentially leading to problems with consumer decision-making
5. EFFECTIVENESS OF REMEDIES IN HELPING CONSUMERS TO MAKE BETTER DECISIONS
5.1. Remedies that have been proposed or put in place
5.2. Effectiveness of remedies
5.3. Note on the analysis methodology
6. FACTORS THAT LIMIT CROSS-BORDER INSURANCE PURCHASES
6.1. Main factors limiting cross-border insurance purchases
6.2. Interventions to increase cross-border demand
7. POTENTIAL SAVINGS CONSUMERS COULD MAKE
7.1. Assessment of potential premium savings
7.2. Assessment of potentially higher claims pay-outs
7.3. Further assessment of potential savings
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
8. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
8.1. Conclusions
8.2. Policy recommendations
9. BIBLIOGRAPHY
Tables
Figures
| Annexes
INTRODUCTION
ANNEXES RELATING TO TASK 1
1. ANNEX 1: APPROACH TO THE DESK-BASED RESEARCH
1.1. Literature review
1.2. Market data collection
2. ANNEX 2: APPROACH TO THE STAKEHOLDER INTERVIEWS
2.1. Preliminary list of stakeholders
2.2. Preparation ahead of the interviewing process
2.3. Interviews at Member State level
2.4. Interviews with stakeholders at EU level
2.5. Full list of stakeholders interviewed and interview dates
2.6. Stakeholder interview guides
3. ANNEX 3: COUNTRY CASE STUDY GUIDELINES
4. ANNEX 4: APPROACH TO THE FOCUS GROUPS
4.1. Design of the focus group research
4.2. Sampling and recruitment
4.3. Discussion guide
4.4. Focus group recruitment screening questions
ANNEXES RELATING TO TASK 2 – ONLINE COMPONENT
5. ANNEX 5: DESIGN OF THE ONLINE EXPERIMENTAND SURVEY
5.1. Sample sizes
5.2. Components of the experiment and survey
5.3. Structure of the contract choice task
5.4. Treatments
5.5. Incentive structure
5.6. Incorporation of findings from Task 1 and the pilot into the experimental design
6. ANNEX 6: DESIGN OF OFFERS IN THE CONTRACT CHOICE TASK
6.1. Offers home insurance
6.2. Offer motor insurance
6.3. Car rental insurance
6.4. Add-on insurance
7. ANNEX 7: SURVEY AND EXPERIMENT SCRIPT
7.1. Introduction to the Survey
7.2. Socio-demographics (D1)
7.3. Cognitive ability and behavioural characteristics (S3)
7.4. Allocation to products and treatments
7.5. Incentives and introduction to the experiment task
7.6. Choice task
7.7. Comprehension and awareness questions (S4)
7.8. Experience with non-life insurance
7.9. Identifying cross-border oriented consumers
7.10. Questions on interest in and potential obstacles of cross-border insurance purchases
8. ANNEX 8: INCENTIVE STRUCTURE
| 9. ANNEX 9: ONLINE EXPERIMENT SAMPLE SIZE CONSIDERATIONS
9.1. Impact of sample size on representativeness
9.2. Impact of sample size on the precision of estimates
ANNEXES RELATING TO TASK 2 – LABORATORY COMPONENT
10. ANNEX 10: DESIGN OF THE LABORATORY EXPERIMENT AND SURVEY
10.1. Laboratory experiment discussion guide
11. ANNEX 11: LABORATORY EXPERIMENT SAMPLE SIZE CONSIDERATIONS
11.1. Products to be tested in the laboratory environment
11.2. Contextual factors and treatments to be tested
11.3. Rationale for including one product instead of two in the choice task
11.4. Combing the online and laboratory experiment data
11.5. Including further products in the laboratory follow-up questions
FURTHER ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION
12. ANNEX 12: ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL PREMIUMSAVINGS USING SURVEY DATA
13. ANNEX 13: SHARES WHO GAVE EACH AVAILABLE ANSWER TO EACH SURVEY QUESTION
14. ANNEX 14: WEIGHTING FACTORS AND TARGET SHARES FOR GENDER, AGE AND REGION
Author (Corp. Body): London Economics | Ipsos | VVA Europe
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Amt für Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2017
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: Specific contract – No 2014 85 08 | Implementing Framework Contract – EAHC/2011/CP/01/LE | 978-92-9200-749-2 | EB-01-17-059-EN-N | 978-92-9200-750-8 | EB-17-01-060-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: servicedecision makingEUcross border cooperationconsumerconsumer protectioninsuranceinsurance benefit
Subject: European Community law in generalConsumption. Consumer protectionInsurance. Insurance risks
Countries Scheme: Germany. General ResourcesEurope. General ResourcesSwedenLatviaSlovak Republic
RomaniaItalySpainFranceUnited KingdomLuxembourg
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Title: Provision of two online consumer surveys as support and evidence base to a Commission study : Identifying the
maincross-border obstacles to the Digital Single Market and where they matter most ; Final report
Title (other): Provision of two online consumer surveys as support and evidence base to a commission study : ''Identifying the main
cross border obstacles to the Digital Single Market and where they matter most'' : Executive Summary
Abstract
The present report was based on data collected within the scope of a wider investigation that feeds into one of the Commission’s top priorities: to create a borderless Digital Single Market (DSM) across Europe. The Commission’s DSM strategy for Europe, announced on May 6, 2015, aims to provide better access to tangible and digital goods and services, to create the right environment for the development and commercial success of digital innovation, and to maximise the growth of the digital economy across the EU28. As support and evidence base, two surveys of online consumers were carried out, looking particularly into their purchase activity for 12 types of tangible goods and offline services (e.g. clothes, travel services), usage of 4 types of online services (e.g. communication services) and access to 8 types of digital content (e.g. e-books). These included a core survey (covering online consumers from all EU28, Norway and Iceland) and a clickstream survey (targeted to online respondents from Belgium and Poland only who had expressed the intention to make at least one immediate online purchase). The main objectives of the study were: 1) to examine the current state of play of cross-border e-commerce in the EU28 and 2) to identify the main drivers and barriers to the proper functioning of a DSM across the EU.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1Report structure
1.2 Introduction
1.3 Objectives
1.4 Methodology
1.4.1 Core survey
1.4.2 Clickstream survey
1.5 Markets surveyed and description of socio-demographic categories
1.5.1 Markets surveyed
1.5.2 Socio-demographic categories: definitions2 ONLINE PURCHASE, USAGE AND ACCESS FREQUENCY ACROSS THE EU28
2.1 Tangible goods and offline services
2.2 Online services
2.3 Digital content
3 ORIGIN OF ONLINE PURCHASE AND ACCESS ACTIVITY
3.1 Tangible goods and offline services
3.2 Digital content
3.3 Origin of latest online purchase
3.4 Actual versus claimed cross-border purchase behaviour
3.5 The flow of cross-border online buying and access activity: geo-mapping analysis
4 ONLINE SPENDING
4.1 Tangible goods and offline services
4.1.1 Total spending
4.1.2 Domestic versus cross-border spending
4.1.3 Proportions of total spending on tangible goods and offline services
4.2 Online services
4.3 Digital content
4.3.1 Total spending
4.3.2 Domestic vs. cross-border spending
4.3.3 Proportions of total spending on digital content
4.4 Spending on respondents’ latest online purchase
4.5 The total estimated value of the Digital Single Market
5 LATEST PURCHASE AND ONLINE PURCHASE JOURNEY
5.1 Online and offline purchase behaviour
5.2 Online and offline purchase behaviour
5.3 Time spent on most recent online purchase
5.4 Type of product most recently purchased online
5.5 Website, appstore or app used for latest online purchase
5.5 Payment methods and shopping devices
5.6 Delivery of the product
6 DRIVERS AND BARRIERSTO (CROSS-BORDER) E-COMMERCE
6.1 General drivers of online purchase behaviour
6.2 Perceived barriers to (cross-border) e-commerce
6.2.1 Barriers to buying products online in country of residence
6.2.2 Barriers to buying products online cross-border
6.2.3 Comparison between domestic and cross-border barriers to online purchase behaviour
| 6.3 Barriers and drivers of cross-border purchase behaviour: regression analysis
6.3.1 Drivers of cross-border purchase behaviour inside and outside the EU
6.3.2 Barriers to cross-border purchase behaviour inside and outside the EU
6.3.3 Drivers and barriers of the intensity of cross-border spending –OLS regression
6.4 Consumer rights awareness and traders’ compliance
7 PROBLEMS AND COMPLAINTS
7.1 Problems encountered
7.1.1 Problems encountered per surveyed market
7.1.2 The origin of problems encountered
7.1.3 Type of problem encountered
7.2 Actions taken after encountering a problem
7.3 Satisfaction with complaint handling
8 CASE STUDY: CLICKSTREAM SURVEY IN BELGIUM AND POLAND
8.1 The origin of the online landscape in Belgium and Poland
8.1.1 Definitions and interpretation of clickstream data tables
8.1.2 Clickstream activity on e-commerce websites in Poland and Belgium
8.1.3 Origin of online touchpoints visited in Belgium
8.1.4 Origin of online touchpoints visited in Poland
8.1.5 Origin of online touchpoints: Belgium versus Poland
8.2 Online Activity in Belgium and Poland
8.2.1 Definitions of online activities or user activities
8.2.2 Online Activity (User Activity) on online touchpoints visited in Belgium
8.2.3 Online Activity (User Activity) on online touchpoints visited in Poland
8.2.4 Online Activity (User Activity) on online touchpoints: Belgium versus Poland
8.3 Online purchase behaviour in Belgium and Poland
8.3.1 Scope: Researched products and services
8.3.2 Purchase behaviour for tangible goods and offline services
8.3.3 Usage of online services
| 8.3.4 Access and purchase behaviour for digital content
8.3.5 Perception of domestic and cross-border purchase behaviour
8.3.6 Actual versus claimed cross-border purchases in Belgium and Poland
8.3.7 Drivers for domestic and cross-border online purchases
8.3.8 Search activities before the online purchase
8.3.9 Reasons for choosing a specific website to complete an online purchase
8.3.10 Problems experienced with online purchases
8.3.11 Reasons for not completing online purchases
9 CONCLUSION
10 ANNEX I –EXTENDED SURVEY METHODOLOGY
10.1 Part 1: Core Survey
10.2 Part 2: Clickstream Survey
11 ANNEX II -WEIGHTING
12 ANNEX III –RESPONDENT PROFILE
12.1 Level of urbanisation
12.2 Financial situation
12.3 Frequency of travelling abroad
12.4 Level of education
12.5 Foreign language skills
12.6 Level of internet usage
13 ANNEX IV -DATA CLEANING
14 ANNEX V -TABULATIONS
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission / Consumers, Health, Agriculture and Food Executive Agency | GfK Belgium
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Amt für Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2015
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-50511-9 | 978-92-79-50605-5 | DS-01-15-607-EN-N | DS-01-15-590-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: domestic marketservicedigitalizationelectronic commerceelectronic marketEUcommodity marketinformation technology
innovationonline serviceconsumerconsumer protection
Subject: Trade. Service industryMarkets. CompetitionScience and technology of information
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Barometer zu den Verbrauchermärkten : Damit die Märkte den Verbrauchern dienen ; Ausgabe 2016
Abstract
Das Barometer zu den Verbrauchermärkten 2016 bietet auf der Grundlage von Daten, die im Jahr 2015 erhoben wurden, einen Überblick darüber, wie die Bürgerinnen und Bürger der EU die Leistung wichtiger Waren-und Dienstleistungsmärkte der Verbraucher beurteilen. Das Barometer dient zur Überwachung der Marktperformance und bietet darüber hinaus eine Bewertung der Ausgangslage auf den Verbrauchermärkten in der EU, bevor diese durch die Initiativen der neuen Kommission beeinflusst werden konnten.[Verfasser siehe Copyright]
Table of Contents
1. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG
2. MESSUNG DER LEISTUNGDER VERBRAUCHERMÄRKTE
2.1.Der Marktperformanceindikator: eine bewährte Methodik
2.2. In der Markterhebung 2015 eingeführte Neuerungen
3.BEWERTUNG DER MARKTPERFORMANCE DURCH DIE VERBRAUCHER
3.1. Gesamtergebnisse
3.2.Unterschiede bei der Marktbewertung zwischen den Ländern
3.3. Soziodemografische Unterschiede bei der Marktbewertung
3.4. Bewertung der verschiedenen Marktgruppen
3.4.1. Gesamtbewertung
3.4.2. Ergebnisse pro Marktcluster
3.5. Bewertung der verschiedenen Marktkomponenten
3.5.1. Vergleichbarkeit
3.5.2. Vertrauen
3.5.3. Erwartungen
3.5.4. Auswahl
3.5.5. Schaden
3.1. Beschwerden
3.1.1. Die Ergebnisse der Markterhebung zu „Beschwerden“
3.1.2. Widersprüchliche Daten bei Beschwerden
3.2. Anbieterwechsel
3.3. Marktdurchdringung
3.4. Preise
3.5. Sicherheit
4.ANHÄNGE
4.1. Bezeichnungen der Märkte
4.2. Nationale Ranglisten der Märkte
4.2.1. Belgien
4.2.2. Bulgarien
4.2.3. Tschechische Republik
4.2.4. Dänemark
4.2.5. Deutschland
4.2.6. Estland
4.2.7. Irland
4.2.8. Griechenland
4.2.9. Spanien
4.2.10. Frankreich
4.2.11. Kroatien
4.2.12. Italien
4.2.13. Zypern
4.2.14. Lettland
4.2.15. Litauen
4.2.16. Luxemburg
4.2.17. Ungarn
4.2.18. Malta
4.2.19. Niederlande
4.2.20. Österreich
4.2.21. Polen
4.2.22. Portugal
4.2.23. Rumänien
4.2.24. Slowenien
4.2.25. Slowakei
4.2.26. Finnland
4.2.27. Schweden
4.2.28. Vereinigtes Königreich
4.2.29. Norwegen
4.2.30. Island
4.3. Relative Bedeutung von MPI-Komponenten nach soziodemografischen Faktoren (Durchschnitt aller Märkte in der EU-28
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher
Year: 2018
Language: de
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: evaluationserviceEUcommercemarket researchconsumerconsumer protection
Subject: Trade. Service industryMarkets. Competition
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Das Barometer zur Lage der Verbraucher : Die Verbraucher im Binnenmarkt ; Ausgabe 2015
Title (other): Arbeitsunterlage der Kommissionsdienststellen : Das Barometer zur Lage der Verbraucher ; Die Verbraucher und der
Binnenmarkt ; Ausgabe 2015
Abstract
Verbraucherbarometer sind ein wichtiges Instrument zur Überwachung der Lage der Verbraucher im Binnenmarkt und enthalten Informationen, die auf nationaler und auf europäischer Ebene in vielfältige Bereiche der Politik einfließen. Sie sind insoweit einzigartig, als sie Trends unter Berücksichtigung aller EU-Mitgliedstaaten (sowie Islands und Norwegens) über einen bestimmten Zeitraum einander gegenüberstellen. Zwei Typen von Barometern sind zu unterscheiden, die jeweils im Abstand von zwei Jahren veröffentlicht werden: Das Verbraucherbarometer beschreibt die Entwicklung wichtiger Verbrauchermärkte und das vorliegende Barometer zur Lage der Verbraucher befasst sich mit der Verbraucherlage in den einzelnen Ländern und erläutert den Stand der Integration des EU-Einzelhandelsmarkts.[Autor siehe Copyright]
Table of Contents
I. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG
1.Methodische Verbesserungen
2.Wesentliche Ergebnisse
II. MESSUNG DER VERBRAUCHERLAGE
III. Lage der Verbraucher auf nationaler und grenzüberschreitender Ebene
1.Wissen und Vertrauen
1.1 Wissen über die Rechte von Verbrauchern und über maßgebliche Rechtsvorschriften
1.2 Vertrauen in Organisationen
1.3 Vertrauen in Rechtsschutzmechanismen
1.4 Vertrauen in die Produktsicherheit
1.5 Vertrauen in Aussagen zum Umweltschutz
2. Einhaltung und Durchsetzung
2.1. Unlautere Geschäftspraktiken
2.2 Sonstige rechtswidrige Handelspraktiken
2.3 Einhaltung des Verbraucherrechts
2.4 Durchsetzung der Vorschriften zum Verbraucherrecht und zur Produktsicherheit
3. Beschwerden und Streitbeilegung
3.1 Beschwerden bei Problemen
3.2 Zufriedenheit mit der Handhabung von Beschwerden
3.3 Indikator „Probleme und Beschwerden“
3.4 Kenntnis, Nutzung und Förderung von Mechanismen zur alternativen Streitbeilegung
3.5 Dauer von Gerichtsverfahren
IV. DIE VERBRAUCHER UND DER BINNENMARKT
1. Der elektronische Handel zwischen Unternehmen und Verbrauchern in der EU
1.1 Online-Einkäufe im Inland und im grenzüberschreitenden Handel
1.2 Online-Verkäufe im Inland und im grenzüberschreitenden Handel
1.3 Online gekaufte/verwendete Produkte
1.4 Volumen des elektronischen Handels zwischenUnternehmen und Verbrauchern
2. Der Kaufprozess im Online-Handel
2.1 Verfahrensweisen und Zeitaufwand für Recherchen bei Online-Einkäufen
2.2 Gründe für die Wahl einer Website/eines Appstore/einer App
2.3 Geräte und Zahlungsmethoden beim Online-Shopping
2.4 Lieferbedingungen
3.Triebkräfte und Hindernisse für den Online-Handel
3.1 Nachfrageseitige Faktoren
3.2. Angebotsseitige Faktoren
4.Probleme und Beschwerden
4.1 Probleme bei Online-Geschäftsvorgängen
4.2. Beschwerden bei Problemen und Zufriedenheit mit der Handhabung von Beschwerden
| 4.3 Bei Europäischen Verbraucherzentren eingegangene Beschwerden im Zusammenhang mit grenzüberschreitenden Online-Einkäufen
4.4 Ergebnisse von Online-Kontrollen auf Einhaltung geltender Vorschriften auf den wichtigsten Verbrauchermärkten
V. Für die Verbraucherlage massgebliche Faktoren und Zusammenhänge
1. Zusammenhang zwischen der Verbraucherlage und wirtschaftlichen Indikatoren, gesellschaftlichen Indikatoren und Governance-Indikatoren
2 Auswirkungen soziodemografischer Faktoren auf die Verbraucherlage
ANHANG I
Länderbezogene Verbraucherstatistiken
ANHANG II
Verbraucherlage-Index
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher
Year: 2016
Language: de
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: evaluationserviceEUcommercemarket researchonline servicelegal usageconsumer
consumer protection
Subject: Trade. Service industryMarkets. CompetitionConsumption. Consumer protection
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
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