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Title: European and national identities in EU's old and new member states:
Title (other): ethnic, civic, instrumental and symbolic components
Abstract
The paper empirically tests three of the most significant theories about the emergence of a European identity. The three approaches considered here are, respectively: first, a "cultural" theory, which understands identities as being based on ethno-cultural factors generated through a long-term (historical) process; second, an "instrumental" theory, which conceives of identities as being based on self-interested calculation (whether economic or political); and a third "civic" theory, which understands identities as being based on agreement over rules for peaceful political co-existence. The empirical test of these theories exploits Eurobarometer data. In recent years, many researchers have become increasingly dissatisfied with the way these surveys poll attitudes towards the EU. This paper contributes to this debate by designing special new questions to measure national and European identities which were included in Eurobarometer 57.2 and are used here for this analysis. The results provide only partial support for the theories mentioned above. The paper finds that national and European identities are compatible. This is, in part, because while national identities are largely "cultural", European identities are primarily "instrumental". However, it also finds that there is a sufficient European common "cultural" ground for a European identity to emerge. It confirms that, because national and European identities are different, the development of a European identity does not necessarily imply the transfer of loyalties from the national to the supranational level. In all the countries analysed here, attachment to the nation remains strong, and certainly greater than attachment to Europe. The paper also shows that it is harder for a European identity to develop in countries with a strong sense of national pride. [Urheber s. Copyright]
Author: Ruiz Jiménez, Antonia M. | Górniak, Jaroslaw Józef | Kosic, Ankica
Series Title: European Integration Online Papers; Vol. 8,11(2004)
Publisher: European Integration Online Papers
Year: 2004
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EU expansionidentitynationalitypublic opinionpolitical science
Subject: History of the European Communities. European idea
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: European Integration Online Portal (http://eiop.or.at/)
Title: Reflections on European identity
Author (Corp. Body): European Commission / Forward Studies Unit
Year: 1999
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: European Economic and Monetary Unionidentityidentity formation
Subject: Culture. Society
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Study for an Impact Assessment on a Proposal for a New Legal Framework on Identity Theft : Final report
Table of Contents
Executive Summary
1. Introduction
1.1 Resume of Study Objectives
1.2 Methodological Approach and Research Plan
1.3 Structure of the Final Report
2. What is Identity Theft?
2.1 Overview – What is Identity Theft?
2.2 Key Elements in Defining Identity Theft
2.3 Review of Existing Definitions
2.4 Towards a Common Definition
2.5 Identity Theft and Fundamental Rights
2.6 Conclusions – Definition of Identity Theft
3. Problem of Identity Theft
3.1 Identity Theft Problem Tree and Intervention Logic
3.2 Drivers of the Identity Theft Problem
3.3 Identity Theft Methods – Online and Offline
3.4 Types of Identity Theft Information and Victims
3.5 Cross-border Dimension of the Problem
3.6 Conclusions – Problem of Identity Theft
4. Quantification of Identity Theft Problem
4.1 Overview
4.2 Number of Identity Theft Victims
4.3 Costs and Other Effects of Identity Theft
4.4 Impact on the EU Economy and the Wider Society
4.5 Conclusions – Impact of Identity Theft
5. National Perspectives & Existing Measures
5.1 Identity Theft Legislation and Institutional Frameworks
5.2 Identity Verification Systems and Preventative Aspects
5.3 Identity Theft Reporting Systems and Victim Support
5.4 International Cooperation in Investigations
5.5 Conclusions – National Perspectives and Existing Measures
6. EU Policy Objectives & Options
6.1 Policy Objectives
6.2 Intervention Logic
6.3 Overview – Policy Options
6.4 Policy Option 1: Status Quo
6.5 Policy Option 2: Non-legislative EU action
6.6 Policy Option 3: EU Legislative Action
6.7 Policy Option 4: Combined Action
7. Impact Assessment
7.1 Assessment Framework
7.2 Overview of the Impact of Policy Options
7.3 Assessment of Policy Option 1 – Status Quo
7.4 ...2 – Non Legislative EU Action
7.5 ...3 – EU Legislative Action
7.6 ...4 – Combined Action
7.7 Political Feasibility of the Policy Options
...
8. Summary & Overall Conclusions
...
Author (Corp. Body): Centre for Strategy & Evaluation Services
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Inneres
Year: 2012
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EUidentityinternetcriminalitylaw
Subject: European Community law in generalLaw of personsInformation transfer
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Comparative Study on Legislative and Non Legislative Measures to Combat Identity Theft and Identity Related Crime :
Final Report ; TR-982-EC
Table of Contents
Preface
Acknowledgements
Summary
CHAPTER 1 Introduction
1.1 The role of technology
CHAPTER 2 Overall concepts
2.1 What is identity?
2.2 Is identity theft part of identity fraud?
2.3 Conclusions
CHAPTER 3 A typology of identity-related crime
3.1 Options for classification and categorisation
3.2 Identity-related crime for direct economic gain
3.3 Relationship to other major forms of criminal activity
3.4 The means to perpetrate identity-related misuse
CHAPTER 4 The consequences of identity-related crime
4.1 The economic costs of identity theft and identity fraud
4.2 Personal impact
CHAPTER 5 Responses and mitigation: criminalisation and identity assurance
5.1 How to approach criminalisation?
5.2 Prevention
5.3 Relevant supranational legislative norms
5.4 Public-private international collaboration
5.5 The European policy response
5.6 National responses
5.6.1 Legislation
5.6.2 Non-legal responses
CHAPTER 6 Conclusions
CHAPTER 7 Country Summaries
7.1 Australia
7.2 Austria
7.3 Belgium
7.4 Bulgaria
7.5 Canada
7.6 China
7.7 Cyprus
7.8 Czech Republic
7.9 Denmark
7.10 Estonia
7.11 Finland
7.12 France
7.13 Germany
7.14 Greece
7.15 Hungary
7.16 India
7.17 Ireland
7.18 Italy
7.19 Japan
7.20 Latvia
7.21 Lithuania
7.22 Luxembourg
7.23 Malta
7.24 The Netherlands
7.25 Poland
7.26 Portugal
7.27 Romania
7.28 Russian Federation
17.29 Slovakia
7.30 Slovenia
7.31 Spain
7.32 Sweden
7.33 United Kingdom
7.34 United States
CHAPTER 8 Analysis
8.1 The legal perspective: a comparative overview of legislation
...
8.2 Civil sanctions
8.3 Case law review with respect to identity theft
...
8.4 Identity theft reporting mechanisms
CHAPTER 9 Conclusions and recommendations
9.1.1 Key findings
9.1.2 Conclusions ...to legislation
9.1.3...to case law
9.1.4 ...to reporting mechanisms
9.2 Recommendations
REFERENCES
Appendices
Author: Robinson, Neil ; 1025229401 | GRAUX, HANS | PARRILLI, DAVIDE MARIA
Contributer: Rand Europe, Cambridge | time.lex
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Inneres
Year: 2011
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: TR-982-EC
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EUidentityinformation and documentationcriminalitylaw
Subject: European Community law in generalLaw of personsInformation transfer
Countries Scheme: Global ResourcesEurope. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Attitudes on Data Protection and Electronic Identity in the European Union : Report
Abstract
This report presents the results of the largest survey ever conducted regarding citizen’s behaviours and attitudes concerning identity management, data protection and privacy. It represents the attitudes and behaviours of Europeans on this subject. [Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
INTRODUCTION
1 PERSONAL DATA DISCLOSURE IN EVERYDAY LIFE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2 DISCLOSING PERSONAL INFORMATION
1.2.1...
1.3 ACTUAL DISCLOSURE OF PERSONAL INFORMATION
1.3.1...
1.4 ATTITUDES TOWARD DISCLOSURE OF PERSONAL INFORMATION
1.4.1...
1.5 INTERNET USE
1.5.1...
1.6 SUMMARY
2 AWARENESS AND PERCEIVED CONTROL
2.1 IDENTITY MANAGEMENT
2.1.1...
2.2 AWARENESS OF POSSIBLE ACCESSIBILITY OF PERSONAL DATA BY THIRD PARTIES
2.2.1...
2.3 PERCEIVED CONTROL OVER PERSONAL DATA
2.3.1...
2.4 IDENTITY THEFT AND DATA LOSS
2.5 SUMMARY
3 PROTECTION OF PERSONAL DATA
3.1 EXPECTATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONS HOLDING PERSONAL DATA
3.1.1...
3.2 RESPONDENTS’ ACCESS TO THEIR PERSONAL DATA HELD BY OTHERS
3.2.1...
3.3 SUMMARY
4 REGULATION AND REMEDIES
4.1 KNOWLEDGE OF THE NATIONAL DATA PROTECTION AUTHORITY
4.2 GENERAL REGULATION
4.2.1...
4.3 RULES ON SPECIFIC CATEGORIES OF PERSONAL DATA
4.3.1...
4.4 SUMMARY
CONCLUSION
Series Title: Special Eurobarometer ; 359 / Wave 74.3
Author (Corp. Body): TNS Opinion & Social
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz | Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Informationsgesellschaft und Medien | Commission of the European Communities / Joint Research Centre | Europäische Kommissi
Year: 2011
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: surveycitizendata protectionattitudeEUidentityinstitutioninternet
controlprivacyregulationbehavior
Subject: European Community law in generalLaw of personsElectronic data processing
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Challenges and practices for establishing the identity of third-country nationals in migration procedures : EMN
Synthesis Report for the EMN Focussed Study 2017
Abstract
The following synthesis report presents an overview of the important challenges faced by national authorities in EU Member States and Norway in their efforts to establish and verify the identity of third-country nationals within the context of various migration procedures and of national practices to address those challenges. Moreover, the study provides an insight into the use of information management systems at national and European level to support identification and verification processes. This study updates and supplements the 2013 EMN Study “Establishing Identity for International Protection: Challenges and Practices”.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
Executive summary
Introduction
Rationale and context of the Study
Study aims
Scope of the study
EU legal and policy context
Structure of the report
1 The National Framework
1.1 Challenges in relation to identity management in the migration process
1.2 Relevant national legislation
1.3 Institutional Framework
2 Methods for Establishing Identity
2.1 Definition and Documents required for establishing identity
2.2 Methods used in the absence of documentary evidence of identity
3 Decision-making process
3.1 Status and weight of different methods and documents to determine identity4 Data sharing and data collection
4.1 Data-sharing mechanisms
4.2 Types of data collected
4.3 Recent changes in data processing
4.4 Recent and planned pilot Projects
5 Debate and evaluation
6 Conclusions
Annex 1 Overview of national authorities/institutions involved in identity establishment
Annex 2 Identity establishment procedures
Annex 3 Documents accepted by (Member) States
Annex 4 Statistical information on international protection and return procedures (2012-2016)
Annex 5 Statistical information on other migration-related procedures (2012-2016)
Annex 6: Statistical information on methods used to establish identity (2012-2016)
Author (Corp. Body): European Migration Network
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Migration und Inneres
Year: 2017
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: data processingthird countriesEUidentityinformation systemmigration policylegal usageremigration
administrative procedure
Subject: European Community law in generalAdministrative proceduresMigrationVarious information networks and systems
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Establishing Identity for International Protection : Challenges and Practices
Abstract
This Synthesis Report presents the main findings of the second EMN Focussed Study “Establishing Identity for International Protection: Challenges and Practices”. The aim of the study is to provide an overview of important challenges facing national authorities in their efforts to establish, in the absence of credible documentation, the identity of applicants for international protection (i.e. asylum and subsidiary protection) and for the return of rejected applicants. It also aims to draw together an overview of national practices in handling these challenges, while allowing for the identification of possible steps towards further (joint) actions.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1. INTRODUCTION
2. RELEVANT NATIONAL AND EU LEGISLATION
2.1 International Protection
2.1.1. Obligation of applicants to cooperate with the authorities
2.1.2. Right of the competent authorities to search the applicant
2.1.3. Possibility to prioritise/accelerate the asylum procedure in cases where the applicant has misled authorities
2.1.4 Investigating and establishing identity
2.1.5 Legislation outlining methods for establishing identity
2.1.6. Fixed terms for the establishment of identity
2.2 Return Procedure
2.2.1. Contacts with presumed countries of origin
2.2.2. Legislation outlining methods for establishing identity
3. INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR ESTABLISHING IDENTITY3.1 Types of organisations involved
3.2 Establishing the identity of asylum applicants as part of the decision making process
3.3 Establishing the identity of rejected asylum applicants for return: organisations involved
3.4 Central Competence Centres
4. METHODS FOR ESTABLISHING IDENTITY
4.1 Defining identity
4.2 Documents required for confirming identity
4.3 Methods used to establish identity in the absence of credible information
4.3.1 Methods for establishing identity in international protection procedures
4.3.2 Methods used in the (forced) return of rejected applicants
5. DECISION-MAKING PROCESS
5.1 Attribution and Determination of Identity
5.2 Weight of different methods to determine identity and grading systems
5.3 Influence of identity establishment on outcome of cases
5.3.1 International Protection
5.3.2 (Forced) Return
6. CONCLUSIONS
ANNEX
Author (Corp. Body): European Migration Network
Contributer: Europäische Kommission
Year: 2013
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: person seeking asylumthird countriesEUidentitymigration policylawlegal usageremigration
administrative procedure
Subject: European Community law in generalAdministrative proceduresMigration
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
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