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Title: Final Report On Study on Critical Dependencies of Energy, Finance and Transport Infrastructures on ICT Infrastructure
Table of Contents
Executive Summary
1 Introduction
1.1 Background
1.2 Objectives and Main Purpose of the Study
1.3 Project Embedding
2 Approach and Methodology
2.1 Key Terms
2.1.1 Selection Criteria and Process
2.2 Modelling
2.2.1 Identifying European Critical Infrastructures
2.2.2 Identifying high ICT-dependent ECI
2.2.3 ICT Threats and Vulnerabilities
3 Critical Technical Objects and Processes
3.1 Sector Energy Infrastructures
3.1.1 ... Electricity
3.1.2 ...Gas
3.1.3 ... Oil
3.2 Sector Finance Infrastructures
3.2.1 ... Securities Transactions
3.2.2 ... Payment Systems
3.3 Sector Transport Infrastructures
23.3.1 ... Air Traffic
3.3.2 ... Waterways
3.3.3 Sub-sector Railways
3.3.4 ... Road
4 Critical ICT Dependencies
4.1 Sector Energy Infrastructures
4.1.1 ... Electricity
4.1.2 ... Gas
4.1.3 ... Oil
4.2 Sector Finance Infrastructures
4.2.1 ... Securities Transactions
4.2.2 ... Payment Systems
4.3 Sector Transport Infrastructures
4.3.1 ... Air Traffic
4.3.2 ... Waterways
4.3.3 ... Railways
4.3.4 ... Road
4.4 Secure Private Network
4.4.1 Electronic Highway
4.4.2 SWIFTNet
4.4.3 SIAnet
4.5 Summary of Sectoral Findings
5 Relevant Risks, Threats and Vulnerabilities
5.1 Overview
5.2 ICT-Threats
5.2.1 ...
6 Existing Protection Strategies
6.1 Standards
...
6.2 Best Practises
6.2.1 ...
7 Synergies, Conclusions and Trends
7.1 Standards
7.2 Best Practises
7.3 Conclusions
7.4 Trends
8 Policy Lines
...
9 Stakeholder Involvement
...
A Annex
Author: Gottwald, Stephan
Contributer: Industrieanlagen Betriebsgesellschaft | MVV decon | PSI | SRC security consulting | Centre for European Security Strategies | Deutschland / Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Inneres
Year: 2009
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: dependenceEUindustrial sectorinformation technologyinfrastructurecommunication technologysecurity
Subject: Peace. Wars. TerrorismIndustrial enterprisesInformation transfer
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Study on Risk Governance of European Critical Infrastructures in the ICT and Energy Sector : Final Report to European
Commission
Abstract
The primary goal of this project was to propose a Risk Governance Framework for European CIs in the interface between the ICT and energy sector, based on the analysis of actors, regulatory, market and technical factors, decision processes, problem framing, development of risk scenarios and application to them of a Risk Governance Framework. In addition we were asked to provide suggestions on how to implement the results of this study.A Risk Governance Framework based on the International Risk Governance Council (IRGC) model has been developed. This report describes how the framework was developed, including significant involvement of stakeholders, and describes the framework. The framework is presented, in an Annex, as a stand-alone format that can be used by stakeholders when they are carrying out the risk governance process. Finally the report draws out conclusions and makes recommendations for the implementation of the framework.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
1 Introduction
1.1 The Project
1.2 Project Goals
1.3 Report Structure
1.4 Project Team
2 Context
2.1 The European Energy Supply System
2.1.1 Dependency and Interconnectedness
2.1.2 Critical Energy Infrastructures
2.1.3 The Energy-ICT Interface
2.2 EU Activities to date in the field of Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security
2.2.1 Critical Infrastructure Protection
2.2.2 European Programme for Critical Infrastructure Protection
2.2.3 Directive on the Identification and Designation of European Critical Infrastructure and the assessment of the need to improve their protection
2.2.4 Critical Infrastructure Warning Information Network
2.2.5 European Cyber Security Policy
2.3 The Rationale for Developing a Programme of Risk Governance for the ICT-Energy Sector
3 Methodology
3.1 Tasks
3.1.1 Literature Review
3.1.2 Project Workshop 1
3.1.3 Stakeholder Workshop 1
3.1.4 Stakeholder Questionnaire
3.1.5 Related EC activities
3.1.6 Development of the Risk Governance Framework
3.1.7 Stakeholder Workshop 2
4 Analysis
4.1 Literature Review
4.2 Project Workshop
4.3 Stakeholder Workshop 1
4.4 Questionnaire
4.5 Related EC Activities
4.6 Stakeholder Workshop 2
5 Risk Governance Framework
5.1 Introduction for Member States
5.1.1 Background
5.1.2 Purpose
5.1.3 Potential interested stakeholders
5.2 The context of the Risk Governance Framework
5.2.1 Scope
5.2.2 Clarification: Use of framework for cross-border and cross-boundary ICT/energy interfaces
5.2.3 Outline
5.2.4 Roles and Responsibilities
5.3 Pre-assessment Phase
5.4 Appraisal phase
5.5 Characterisation and Evaluation Phase
5.6 Management phase
5.7 Outputs
6 Conclusions and Recommendations
6.1 Conclusions
6.2 Recommendations and next steps
7 Glossary
Annexes
Author: Perks, Jonathan | Hyde, Jonathan | Falconer, Angela
Contributer: AEA Technology Plc, Harwell | risksolutuions | ESR Technology | DIALOGOIK
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Inneres
Year: 2009
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: JLS/2007/D1/026 | AEA/ED05761/Issue 1
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: generation of energyEUinformation technologyinfrastructurecommunicationrisk assessment
Subject: Peace. Wars. TerrorismEnergy policy. Power generationInformation networks
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Study on Risk Governance of European Critical Infrastructures in the ICT and Energy Sector : Final Report to European
Commission ; Annex
Abstract
The primary goal of this project was to propose a Risk Governance Framework for European CIs in the interface between the ICT and energy sector, based on the analysis of actors, regulatory, market and technical factors, decision processes, problem framing, development of risk scenarios and application to them of a Risk Governance Framework. In addition we were asked to provide suggestions on how to implement the results of this study.A Risk Governance Framework based on the International Risk Governance Council (IRGC) model has been developed. This report describes how the framework was developed, including significant involvement of stakeholders, and describes the framework. The framework is presented, in an Annex, as a stand-alone format that can be used by stakeholders when they are carrying out the risk governance process. Finally the report draws out conclusions and makes recommendations for the implementation of the framework.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
Annex 1: Literature review
Annex 2: Stakeholder Workshop 1
Annex 3: Risk Governance Questionnaire
Annex 4: Stakeholder Workshop 2
Annex 5: Risk Governance Framework with Templates
Annex 6: Case Study Application for the Risk Governance Framework
Annex 7: ICT / Energy System Interfaces
Annex 8: Example Defences
Annex 9: Policy Brief
Contributer: AEA Technology Plc, Harwell | risksolutuions | ESR Technology | DIALOGOIK
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Inneres
Year: 2009
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: JLS/2007/D1/026 | AEA/ED05761/Issue 1
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: generation of energyEUinformation technologyinfrastructurecommunicationrisk assessment
Subject: Peace. Wars. TerrorismEnergy policy. Power generationInformation networks
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Study on Availability of Access to Computer Networks in Rural Areas
Abstract
This is the Draft Final Report of the DG AGRI “Study on Availability of Access to Computer Networks in Rural Areas”. It provides policy makers, stakeholders and others, with concrete guidance on how to maximise the benefits of Information & Communications Technology (ICT) for growth and jobs in all rural areas of Europe, using the support of rural development programmes. The study includes a Guide and database of best practices (in Part I) and a Review of existing policies and literature (in Part II). These were developed using two methodologies that formed the main research strands of the study (a) The establishment and analysis of a database of 67 best practice cases studies and (b) A review of existing data, literature, policy and research illustrating ICT take-up The Review concludes that rural ICT policies need to balance top-down and bottom-up approaches. This entails the European Commission articulating bottom-up recommendations coherently and centrally in strategy plans and development programmes – and individual Directorate Generals (DGs) making their own grant mechanisms more accessible to ‘home-spun’ initiatives that have local potential for solving local access and take-up.
Author (Corp. Body): The National Microelectronics Applications Centre Ltd (Ireland) | Czech Centrum for Science and Society (Czech Republic) | CyberMoor Ltd (United Kingdom) | Institute of Communication and Information Technologies Ltd. (Poland) | Mainstrat (Spain) | Power L
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Landwirtschaft und Ländliche Entwicklung, Brüssel
Year: 2007
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: Contract No: 30-CE-0099278/00-78
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: Agricultural PolicyComputer networksCommon agricultural policyAgricultural developmentRural developmentagricultural policyinformation technologyagricultural development
Subject: Agricultural policy. Agricultural development
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu)
Title: Strategic input for 2016 - 2017 Work Programme : Secure Societies ; Protecting freedom and security of Europe and its
citizens
Abstract
The Secure Societies Advisory Group (SSAG) has considered the strategic priorities that should shape the H2020 programme for the 2016/2017...[Author vide copyright]
Author (Corp. Body): Secure Societies Advisory Group
Contributer: Europäische Kommission
Year: 2014
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Programme und Statuten
Keyword: data securityserviceEUresearchsocietyhuman sciencesinformation technologyinnovation
internetsecuritytechnologyenterprise
Subject: European Communities and European Union in generalVarious information networks and systems
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Provision of two online consumer surveys as support and evidence base to a Commission study : Identifying the
maincross-border obstacles to the Digital Single Market and where they matter most ; Final report
Title (other): Provision of two online consumer surveys as support and evidence base to a commission study : ''Identifying the main
cross border obstacles to the Digital Single Market and where they matter most'' : Executive Summary
Abstract
The present report was based on data collected within the scope of a wider investigation that feeds into one of the Commission’s top priorities: to create a borderless Digital Single Market (DSM) across Europe. The Commission’s DSM strategy for Europe, announced on May 6, 2015, aims to provide better access to tangible and digital goods and services, to create the right environment for the development and commercial success of digital innovation, and to maximise the growth of the digital economy across the EU28. As support and evidence base, two surveys of online consumers were carried out, looking particularly into their purchase activity for 12 types of tangible goods and offline services (e.g. clothes, travel services), usage of 4 types of online services (e.g. communication services) and access to 8 types of digital content (e.g. e-books). These included a core survey (covering online consumers from all EU28, Norway and Iceland) and a clickstream survey (targeted to online respondents from Belgium and Poland only who had expressed the intention to make at least one immediate online purchase). The main objectives of the study were: 1) to examine the current state of play of cross-border e-commerce in the EU28 and 2) to identify the main drivers and barriers to the proper functioning of a DSM across the EU.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1Report structure
1.2 Introduction
1.3 Objectives
1.4 Methodology
1.4.1 Core survey
1.4.2 Clickstream survey
1.5 Markets surveyed and description of socio-demographic categories
1.5.1 Markets surveyed
1.5.2 Socio-demographic categories: definitions2 ONLINE PURCHASE, USAGE AND ACCESS FREQUENCY ACROSS THE EU28
2.1 Tangible goods and offline services
2.2 Online services
2.3 Digital content
3 ORIGIN OF ONLINE PURCHASE AND ACCESS ACTIVITY
3.1 Tangible goods and offline services
3.2 Digital content
3.3 Origin of latest online purchase
3.4 Actual versus claimed cross-border purchase behaviour
3.5 The flow of cross-border online buying and access activity: geo-mapping analysis
4 ONLINE SPENDING
4.1 Tangible goods and offline services
4.1.1 Total spending
4.1.2 Domestic versus cross-border spending
4.1.3 Proportions of total spending on tangible goods and offline services
4.2 Online services
4.3 Digital content
4.3.1 Total spending
4.3.2 Domestic vs. cross-border spending
4.3.3 Proportions of total spending on digital content
4.4 Spending on respondents’ latest online purchase
4.5 The total estimated value of the Digital Single Market
5 LATEST PURCHASE AND ONLINE PURCHASE JOURNEY
5.1 Online and offline purchase behaviour
5.2 Online and offline purchase behaviour
5.3 Time spent on most recent online purchase
5.4 Type of product most recently purchased online
5.5 Website, appstore or app used for latest online purchase
5.5 Payment methods and shopping devices
5.6 Delivery of the product
6 DRIVERS AND BARRIERSTO (CROSS-BORDER) E-COMMERCE
6.1 General drivers of online purchase behaviour
6.2 Perceived barriers to (cross-border) e-commerce
6.2.1 Barriers to buying products online in country of residence
6.2.2 Barriers to buying products online cross-border
6.2.3 Comparison between domestic and cross-border barriers to online purchase behaviour
| 6.3 Barriers and drivers of cross-border purchase behaviour: regression analysis
6.3.1 Drivers of cross-border purchase behaviour inside and outside the EU
6.3.2 Barriers to cross-border purchase behaviour inside and outside the EU
6.3.3 Drivers and barriers of the intensity of cross-border spending –OLS regression
6.4 Consumer rights awareness and traders’ compliance
7 PROBLEMS AND COMPLAINTS
7.1 Problems encountered
7.1.1 Problems encountered per surveyed market
7.1.2 The origin of problems encountered
7.1.3 Type of problem encountered
7.2 Actions taken after encountering a problem
7.3 Satisfaction with complaint handling
8 CASE STUDY: CLICKSTREAM SURVEY IN BELGIUM AND POLAND
8.1 The origin of the online landscape in Belgium and Poland
8.1.1 Definitions and interpretation of clickstream data tables
8.1.2 Clickstream activity on e-commerce websites in Poland and Belgium
8.1.3 Origin of online touchpoints visited in Belgium
8.1.4 Origin of online touchpoints visited in Poland
8.1.5 Origin of online touchpoints: Belgium versus Poland
8.2 Online Activity in Belgium and Poland
8.2.1 Definitions of online activities or user activities
8.2.2 Online Activity (User Activity) on online touchpoints visited in Belgium
8.2.3 Online Activity (User Activity) on online touchpoints visited in Poland
8.2.4 Online Activity (User Activity) on online touchpoints: Belgium versus Poland
8.3 Online purchase behaviour in Belgium and Poland
8.3.1 Scope: Researched products and services
8.3.2 Purchase behaviour for tangible goods and offline services
8.3.3 Usage of online services
| 8.3.4 Access and purchase behaviour for digital content
8.3.5 Perception of domestic and cross-border purchase behaviour
8.3.6 Actual versus claimed cross-border purchases in Belgium and Poland
8.3.7 Drivers for domestic and cross-border online purchases
8.3.8 Search activities before the online purchase
8.3.9 Reasons for choosing a specific website to complete an online purchase
8.3.10 Problems experienced with online purchases
8.3.11 Reasons for not completing online purchases
9 CONCLUSION
10 ANNEX I –EXTENDED SURVEY METHODOLOGY
10.1 Part 1: Core Survey
10.2 Part 2: Clickstream Survey
11 ANNEX II -WEIGHTING
12 ANNEX III –RESPONDENT PROFILE
12.1 Level of urbanisation
12.2 Financial situation
12.3 Frequency of travelling abroad
12.4 Level of education
12.5 Foreign language skills
12.6 Level of internet usage
13 ANNEX IV -DATA CLEANING
14 ANNEX V -TABULATIONS
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission / Consumers, Health, Agriculture and Food Executive Agency | GfK Belgium
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Amt für Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2015
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-50511-9 | 978-92-79-50605-5 | DS-01-15-607-EN-N | DS-01-15-590-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: domestic marketservicedigitalizationelectronic commerceelectronic marketEUcommodity marketinformation technology
innovationonline serviceconsumerconsumer protection
Subject: Trade. Service industryMarkets. CompetitionScience and technology of information
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
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