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Title: Developing Anti-Discrimination Law in Europe : The 28 EU Member States, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,
Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Turkey compared
Abstract
Over 10 years ago a major and unprecedented evolution occurred in the European Union with the adoption in 2000 of two pieces of EU legislation in the field of anti-discrimination: the Racial Equality Directive (2000/43/EC) and the Employment Equality Directive (2000/78/EC). The transposition and implementation of these legal provisions into the national legal systems of the 28 Member States is described in a series of annually updated country reports produced by the European Network of Legal Experts in the Non-discrimination Field. In addition, the Network also includes candidate countries (the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland and Turkey) and, since 2012, EEA countries (Liechtenstein and Norway).2 The Network annually reports on their national legislation compared with the anti-discrimination standards set by the EU. This Network was established and is managed by the Human European Consultancy and the Migration Policy Group. The national reports are written by independent national experts in each country covered by the Network. The information is provided in response to questions set out in a template format which closely follows the provisions of the two Directives, although all countries included in the Network do not have the same compliance obligations. The 33 reports cover national law, the establishment of enforcement mechanisms, jurisprudence and the adoption of other measures. They contain information current as of 1 January 2013.3 As such, they are a valuable source of information on national anti-discrimination law and can be found on the Network’s website at: www.non-discrimination.net. [Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
Preface
Introduction
1 Protected grounds of discrimination
A. Which grounds are covered?
Table: Protected grounds
B. Racial or ethnic origin
C. Religion or belief
Specific provisions ... – ethos-based organisations
D. Disability
Specific provisions ... – the reasonable accommodation duty
Table: ...
Specific provisions on disability – health and safety
E. Sexual orientation
F. Age
Specific provisions on age
G. Assumed and associated discrimination
H. Multiple discrimination
2 Definitions and scope
A. Direct discrimination
...
B. Indirect discrimination
...
C. Harassment
...
D. Instructions to discriminate
...
E. Personal scope
F. Material scope
...
Employment
Social protection
Social advantages
Education
Access to and supply of goods and services
Beyond the Directives
3 Exceptions to the principle of equal treatment and positive action
A. Genuine and determining occupational requirements
B. Armed forces and other specific occupations
C. Nationality
...
D. Family benefits
E. Public security, public order, criminal offences, protection of health, and protection of the rights and freedoms of others
F. Other exceptions
G. Positive action
...
4 Access to justice and effective enforcement
A. Judicial and administrative procedures
Legal action in the private sector
Legal action in the public sector
Obstacles to effective access to justice
B. Legal standing and associations
Entities that may engage in procedures
...
To engage ‘on behalf of’
Collective redress
Legitimate interest
C. Burden of proof
D. Victimisation
...
E. Sanctions and remedies
5 The role of equality bodies compared
...
6 Implementation and compliance
A. Dissemination of information and social and civil dialogue
Dissemination of information and awareness raising
Social and civil dialogue
B. Ensuring compliance
Conclusion
ANNEX 1 ...
...
Author: Chopin, Isabelle ; 1026392233 | Germaine-Sahl, Catharina ; 1053777302
Contributer: Human European Consultancy, Utrecht | Migration Policy Group | Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz | Europäisches Netz unabhängiger Sachverständiger im Bereich der Nichtdiskriminierung
Publisher: Amt für Amtliche Veröffentlichungen, Luxemburg
Year: 2013
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-36348-1 | DS-AW-14-001-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: equal rights lawhandicapemployment policydiscriminationEUhealth policyIcelandLiechtenstein
MacedoniaNorwayraceracial policylegal usagereligionsocial policyTurkey
Subject: European Community law in generalSocial policy. Social welfareEqual opportunitiesRacial policySick and handicapped
Countries Scheme: Europe. General ResourcesIcelandNorway
Republic of MacedoniaLiechtensteinTurkey
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: A comparative analysis of non-discrimination law in Europe 2015 : A comparative analysis of the implementation of EU
non-discrimination law in the EU Member States, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein,
Montenegro, Norway, Serbia and Turkey
Abstract
The objective of this report is to compare and contrast anti-discrimination law in the 28 EU Member States and EU candidate countries (namely the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Turkey), as comprehensively described in the annually updated country reports written by the European network of legal experts in gender equality and non-discrimination and summarised in this publication. In addition, the report includes EEA countries, namely Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, which became part of the previous network in 2012.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION
1 PROTECTED GROUNDS OF DISCRIMINATION
1.1 Introduction to the transposition of the anti-discrimination directives
1.2 Grounds of discrimination
1.2.1 Racial or ethnic origin
1.2.2 Religion or belief
1.2.3 Disability
1.2.4 Sexual orientation
1.2.5 Age
1.3 Assumed and associated discrimination
1.4 Multiple and intersectional discrimination
2 DEFINITIONS AND SCOPE
2.1 Forms of discrimination
2.1.1 Direct discrimination
2.1.2 Indirect discrimination
2.1.3 Harassment
2.1.4 Instructions to discriminate
2.2 Scope of discrimination
2.2.1 Personal scope
2.2.2 Material scope
3 EXCEPTIONS TO THE PRINCIPLE OF NON-DISCRIMINATION AND POSITIVE ACTION
3.1 Genuine and determining occupational requirements
3.2 Armed forces and other specific occupations
3.3 Nationality
3.4 Family benefits
3.5 Public security, public order, criminal offences, protection of health and protection of the rights and freedoms of others
3.6 Other exceptions
3.7 Positive action
4 ACCESS TO JUSTICE AND EFFECTIVE ENFORCEMENT
4.1 Judicial and administrative procedures
4.1.1 Legal actions in the private sector
4.1.2 Legal actions in the public sector
4.1.3 Obstacles to effective access to justice
4.2 Legal standing and associations
4.2.1 Entities which may engage in procedures
4.2.2. To engage ‘on behalf of’
4.2.3 Collective redress
4.3 Burden of proof
4.4 Victimisation
4.5 Sanctions and remedies
5 EQUALITY BODIES
5.1 Grounds covered
5.2 Competencies of Equality Bodies
6 IMPLEMENTATION AND COMPLIANCE
6.1 Dissemination of information and social and civil dialogue
6.1.1 Dissemination of information and awareness-raising
6.1.2 Social and civil dialogue
46.2 Ensuring compliance
7 CONCLUSION
Annex 1. Main national specific anti-discrimination legislation
Annex 2. Signature/ratification of international conventions
Annex 3. National specialised bodies
Author: Chopin, Isabelle ; 1026392233 | Germaine-Sahl, Catharina ; 1053777302
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher | European Network of Legal Experts in Gender Equality and Non Discrimination
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Amt für Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2016
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-58015-4 | DS-04-16-375-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: old ageequal rights lawhandicapdiscriminationethnic originEUfaithimplementation
IcelandLiechtensteinMacedoniaMontenegroNorwayracereligionSerbiasexualityTurkey
comparison
Subject: European Community law in generalEuropean Community treaties and agreementsHuman rights
Countries Scheme: Europe. General ResourcesIcelandNorwayMontenegroSerbia
Republic of MacedoniaLiechtensteinTurkey
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: A comparative analysis of gender equality law in Europe 2015 : A comparative analysis of the implementation of EU gender
equality law in the EU Member States, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro,
Norway, Serbia and Turkey
Abstract
This report provides a general overview of the ways in which EU gender equality law has been implemented in the domestic laws of the 28 Member States of the European Union, as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway (the EEA countries) and four candidate countries (the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Turkey). The analysis is based on the country reports written by the gender equality law experts of the European equality law network (EELN). At the same time, this report explains the most important elements of the EU gender equality acquis.. The term ‘EU gender equality acquis’ refers to all the relevant EU Treaty and EU Charter of Fundamental Rights provisions, legislation and the case law of the CJEU in relation to gender equality.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
1 INTRODUCTION
2 GENERAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Constitutional provisions
2.2 Equal treatment legislation
3 IMPLEMENTATION OF CENTRAL CONCEPTS
3.1 Sex/gender/transgender
3.2 Direct sex discrimination
3.3 Indirect sex discrimination
3.4 Multiple discrimination and intersectional discrimination
3.5 Positive action
3.6 Harassment and sexual harassment
3.7 Instruction to discriminate
3.8 Other forms of discrimination
4 EQUAL PAY AND EQUAL TREATMENT AT WORK
4.1 The EU principle of equal pay
4.2 The scope given to the equal pay principle in national law
4.3 Equal treatment at work; access to work and working conditions
4.3.1 The personal and material scope
4.3.2 Exceptions
4.3.3 Particular difficulties
5 MATERNITY, PATERNITY, PARENTAL AND OTHER TYPES OF LEAVES
5.1 Pregnancy and maternity protection
5.2 Maternity leave
5.3 Adoption leave
5.4 Parental leave
5.5 Paternity leave
5.6 Time off/care leave
5.7 Leave in relation to surrogacy
5.8 Leave sharing arrangements
5.9 Flexible working-time arrangements
6 OCCUPATIONAL PENSION SCHEMES (CHAPTER 2 OF DIRECTIVE 2006/54)
6.1 Direct and indirect sex discrimination in occupational social security schemes
6.2 Personal scope
6.3 Material scope
6.4 Exclusions from material scope
6.5 Case law and examples of sex discrimination
6.6 Sex as an actuarial factor
6.7 Difficulties
7 STATUTORY SCHEMES OF SOCIAL SECURITY (DIRECTIVE 79/7)
7.1 Implementation principle of equal treatment
7.2 Personal scope
7.3 Material scope
7.4 Exclusions from material scope
7.5 Sex as an actuarial factor
7.6 Difficulties
8 SELF-EMPLOYED WORKERS (DIRECTIVE 2010/41/EU AND PROVISIONS OF THE RECAST DIRECTIVE)
8.1 Implementation of Directive 2010/41/EU
8.2 Personal Scope
| 8.3 Different categories of self-employed workers and life partners
8.4 Material Scope
8.5 Positive action
8.6 Social protection
8.7 Maternity benefits
8.8 Occupational social security
8.9 Exceptions related to occupational social security
8.10 Prohibition of discrimination
9 EQUAL TREATMENT IN RELATION TO GOODS AND SERVICES
10 VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN RELATION TO THE ISTANBUL CONVENTION
11 ENFORCEMENT AND COMPLIANCE
11.1 Victimisation
11.2 Burden of proof
11.3 Remedies and sanctions
11.4 Access to courts
11.5 Equality bodies
11.6 Social partners
11.7 Collective agreements
12 OVERALL ASSESSMENT: LAW ON THE BOOKS VERSUS LAW IN PRACTICE
ANNEX 1 – EU GENDER EQUALITY DIRECTIVES
Directive 79/7/EEC
Directive 92/85/EEC
Directive 2004/113/EC
Directive 2006/54/EC
Directive 2010/18/EU
Directive 2010/41/EU
ANNEX 2 – LIST OF EQUALITY BODIES
Author: Timmer, Alexandra | Senden, Linda ; 1054683689
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher | European Network of Legal Experts in Gender Equality and Non Discrimination
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Amt für Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2016
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-58017-8 | DS-04-16-376-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: equal rights lawlaborequal opportunityleave for parentsEUwomangenderequality of treatment
IcelandLiechtensteinmanMacedoniaMontenegromaternal leaveNorwaylawSerbiaTurkey
Subject: European Community law in generalHuman rights
Countries Scheme: Europe. General ResourcesIcelandNorwayMontenegroSerbiaRepublic of Macedonia
LiechtensteinTurkey
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Gender equality law in Europe : How are EU rules transposed into national law in 2015?
Abstract
This report provides a general overview of the transposition of EU gender equality law in the 28 Member States of the European Union, as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway (the EEA countries) and four candidate countries (the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Turkey). The overview is based on the country reports written by the gender equality law experts of the European equality law network (EELN). This report explains the most important elements of the EU gender equality acquis and its implementation at the national level. The term ‘EU gender equality acquis’ refers to all the relevant Treaty and Charter provisions, legislation and the case law of the CJEU in relation to gender equality.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
1 INTRODUCTION
2 GENERAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Constitutional provisions
2.2 Equal treatment legislation
3 IMPLEMENTATION OF CENTRAL CONCEPTS
3.1 Sex/gender/transgender
3.2 Direct sex discrimination
3.3 Indirect sex discrimination
3.4 Multiple discrimination and intersectional discrimination
3.5 Positive action
3.6 Harassment and sexual harassment
3.7 Instruction to discriminate
3.8 Other forms of discrimination
4 EQUAL PAY AND EQUAL TREATMENT AT WORK
4.1 The EU principle of equal pay
4.2 The scope given to the equal pay principle in national law
4.3 Equal treatment at work; access to work and working conditions
4.3.1 The personal and material scope
4.3.2 Exceptions
4.3.3 Particular difficulties
5 MATERNITY, PATERNITY, PARENTAL AND OTHER TYPES OF LEAVES
5.1 Pregnancy and maternity protection
5.2 Maternity leave
5.3 Adoption leave
5.4 Parental leave
5.5 Paternity leave
5.6 Time off/care leave
5.7 Leave in relation to surrogacy
5.8 Leave sharing arrangements
5.9 Flexible working-time arrangements
6 OCCUPATIONAL PENSION SCHEMES (CHAPTER 2 OF DIRECTIVE 2006/54)
6.1 Direct and indirect sex discrimination in occupational social security schemes
6.2 Personal scope
6.3 Material scope
6.4 Exclusions from material scope
6.5 Case law and examples of sex discrimination
6.6 Sex as an actuarial factor
6.7 Difficulties
7 STATUTORY SCHEMES OF SOCIAL SECURITY (DIRECTIVE 79/7)
7.1 Implementation principle of equal treatment
7.2 Personal scope
7.3 Material scope
7.4 Exclusions from material scope
7.5 Sex as an actuarial factor
7.6 Difficulties
8 SELF-EMPLOYED WORKERS (DIRECTIVE 2010/41/EU AND PROVISIONS OF THE RECAST DIRECTIVE)
8.1 Implementation of Directive 2010/41/EU
8.2 Personal Scope
8.3 Different categories of self-employed workers and life partners
| 8.4 Material Scope
8.5 Positive action
8.6 Social protection
8.7 Maternity benefits
8.8 Occupational social security
8.9 Exceptions related to occupational social security
8.10 Prohibition of discrimination
9 EQUAL TREATMENT IN RELATION TO GOODS AND SERVICES
10 VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN RELATION TO THE ISTANBUL CONVENTION
11 ENFORCEMENT AND COMPLIANCE
11.1 Victimisation
11.2 Burden of proof
11.3 Remedies and sanctions
11.4 Access to courts
11.5 Equality bodies
11.6 Social partners
11.7 Collective agreements
12 OVERALL ASSESSMENT: LAW ON THE BOOKS VERSUS LAW IN PRACTICE
Author: Timmer, Alexandra | Senden, Linda ; 1054683689
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher | European Network of Legal Experts in Gender Equality and Non Discrimination
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Amt für Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2016
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-58037-6 | 2315-3849 | DS-AD-16-001-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: equal rights lawequal opportunitydiscriminationEUwomanequality of treatmentequalityIceland
LiechtensteinmanMacedoniahuman rightsMontenegroNorwaylawlegal usageSerbiasexual harassment
Turkey
Subject: European Community law in generalHuman rights
Countries Scheme: Europe. General ResourcesIcelandNorwayMontenegroSerbiaRepublic of Macedonia
LiechtensteinTurkey
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
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