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Title: Testing of a standardised information notice for consumers on the common European sales law : Request for services
JUST/2011/JCIV/FW/ 0135/A4 in the context of the framework service contract EAHC/2011/CP/01 ; Final report
Table of Contents
1. Glossary of Terms Used In This Report
2. Executive Summary
2.1 Background
2.2 Behavioural Testing of a Standardised Information Notice
2.3 Findings from Behavioural Testing
2.4 Recommended Standardised Information Notice
3. Recommended Standardised Information Notice under the Common European Sales Law (“Recommended Notice”)
4. Testing of a Standardised Information Notice for Consumers on a Common European Sales Law
4.1 Background
4.1.1 The Common European Sales Law
4.1.2 A Standardised Information Notice for the CESL
4.1.3 Objectives for the Testing
5. Behavioural Experiments to Test the Effectiveness of a Standardised Information Notice
5.1 Overview
5.2 Summary of Review of Evidence
5.2.1 Introduction
5.2.2 Summary: Literature Review
5.2.3 Summary: Consumer Interviews
5.2.4 Summary: Consumer Survey
5.3 Developing Variants of the Standardised Information Notice
5.3.1 Procedure
5.3.2 Wave I: Content Variations
5.3.3 Wave II: Presentation Variations
5.4 Developing the Behavioural Experiments
5.4.1 Objectives and Overview
5.4.2 Key Metrics
5.4.3 The Balanced Scorecard
5.4.4 Consumer Sample
5.5 Results of Behavioural Experiment A
5.5.1 Summary of Findings
5.5.2 Treatment Groups
5.5.3 Detailed Findings
5.6 Results of Behavioural Experiment B
5.6.1 Summary of Findings
5.6.2 Treatment Groups
6. Conclusions
7. Recommended Standard Information Notice
7.1 English
7.2 German
7.3 French
Author (Corp. Body): Gallup Organisation, Europe
Contributer: RAND Europe | Decision technology | Gallup Institute for Advanced Behavioural Studies
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz
Year: 2013
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EUEuropean Lawsales contract
Subject: European Community law in generalEconomic law. Competition lawConsumption. Consumer protection
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Testing of a Standardised Information Notice for Consumers on the Common European Sales Law : Request for services
JUST/2011/JCIV/FW/ 0135/A4 in the context of the framework service contract EAHC/2011/CP/01 ; Appendix A: Main
supporting appendix
Table of Contents
1. Experiment A: Notice Variants & Discussion of Findings
1.1 Wave I Notice Variants
1.1.1 Variant NL: Trader’s National Law Notice
1.1.2 Variant C.00: Draft Notice
1.1.3 Variant C.01: Rights table
1.1.4 Variant C.02: Rights & periods table
1.1.5 Variant C.03: Clarified
1.1.6 Variant C.04: Detailed
1.1.7 Variant C.05: Comparison
1.1.8 Variant C.06: Title & Intro
1.1.9 Variant C.07: Rights before signing
1.1.10 Variant C.08: Rights after signing
1.1.11 Variant C.09: When to claim
1.1.12 Variant C.10: How to claim
1.1.13 Variant C.11: Examples
1.2 Wave II Notice Variants
1.2.1 Variant P.00: New Baseline Notice (Variant C.06 from Wave I)
1.2.2 Variant P.01: When-to-Claim Table
1.2.3 Variant P.02: EU Insignia
1.2.4 Variant P.03: Text Boxes
1.2.5 Variant P.04: Keywords Highlighted
1.2.6 Variant P.05: Uppercase Highlighting
1.3 Notice Variant Performance
1.3.1 Wave I Variants
1.3.2 Wave II Variants
1.4 Balanced Scorecard Calculation
1.4.1 Version 1 (Presented in Main Report)
1.4.2 Version 2 (Used to corroborate Version 1 recommendations)
1.4.3 Version 1 and 2 Score Comparison
1.5 Drop-Out Rates
2. Experiment B: Discussion of Findings
2.1 Treatment Group Recap
2.2 Findings
2.2.1 Comprehension Scores
2.2.2 Confirmation of Agreement on a Durable Medium
2.2.3 Timing: Delayed presentation (presentation at confirmation screen vs. delivery detail screen)
2.2.4 Forced vs. Unforced Presentation
2.2.5 Click-wrap vs. Browse-wrap
2.2.6 Explicit vs. Implicit Consent
2.2.7 Shopping Channel
3. Review Phase in Detail
3.1 Literature Review
3.1.1 Aims
3.1.2 Methodology
3.1.3 Results of the Literature Review
3.1.4 Key references
3.2 Consumer Interviews
3.2.1 Aims
3.2.2 Consumer Interviews: Methodology & Sample
3.2.3 Results of the Consumer Interviews
3.3 Consumer Survey
3.3.1 Aims
3.3.2 Survey Overview
3.3.3 Results of the Consumer Survey
Author (Corp. Body): The Gallup Organisation, Europe
Contributer: RAND Europe | Decision Technology | Gallup Institute for Advanced Behavioural Studies
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz
Year: 2013
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EUEuropean Lawsales contract
Subject: European Community law in generalEconomic law. Competition lawConsumption. Consumer protection
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Testing of a Standardised Information Notice for Consumers on the Common European Sales Law : Request for services
JUST/2011/JCIV/FW/ 0135/A4 in the context of the framework service contract EAHC/2011/CP/01 ; Appendix B: Experiment,
survey and interview designs
Table of Contents
1. The Behavioural Experiments
1.1 Experiment A: Design & Implementation
1.1.1 Experiment A: Design
1.1.2 Experiment A: Implementation
1.2 Experiment B: Design and Implementation
1.2.1 Experiment B: Design
2. Review Phase:
2.1 Consumer Interviews: Discussion Guide
2.1.1 Section 1: Welcome & Introduction
2.1.2 Section 2: Initial Reactions to the Common European Sales Law and Unprompted Questions
2.1.3 Section 3: Notice Comprehension
2.1.4 Section 4: Presentation
2.1.5 Section 5: Cross Border Purchasing
2.1.6 Section 6: Thank and Close
2.2 Consumer Survey: Survey Design
2.2.1 Flow
2.2.2 Task 0: Screening and Introduction
2.2.3 Task A1: Content and Drafting of CESL Notice (Whole)
2.2.4 Task A2: Content and Drafting of CESL Notice (Sections)
2.2.5 Task B: Consumer Understanding of the CESL Notice
2.2.6 Task C: Background Knowledge of National Law
2.2.7 Task D: Respondent Survey
2.2.8 Miscellaneous Screens
2.2.9 Notice to use in tasks A1, A2 and B. Shading shows sections to be used in task A2
Author (Corp. Body): The Gallup Organisation, Europe
Contributer: RAND Europe | Decision technology | Gallup Institute for Advanced Behavioural Studies
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz
Year: 2013
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EUEuropean Lawsales contract
Subject: European Community law in generalEconomic law. Competition lawConsumption. Consumer protection
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the documentQuelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Testing of a Standardised Information Notice for Consumers on the Common European Sales Law : Request for services
JUST/2011/JCIV/FW/ 0135/A4 in the context of the framework service contract EAHC/2011/CP/01 ; Appendix C: Detailed
experimental findings
Table of Contents
1. The Behavioural Experiments
1.1 Experiment A
1.1.1 Wave I Complete Findings
1.1.2 Wave II Complete Findings
1.2 Experiment B
1.2.1 Complete Findings
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz
Contributer: Rand Europe | Decision technology | Gallup Institute for Advanced Behavioural Studies
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz
Year: 2013
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EUEuropean Lawsales contract
Subject: European Community law in generalEconomic law. Competition lawConsumption. Consumer protection
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the documentQuelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Proposal on contract rules for online purchase of digital content and tangible goods : Inception impact assessment
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher
Year: 2015
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Arbeitspapiere, Preprints
Keyword: electronic businessEUsales contractlaw
Subject: European Community law in generalCommercial law. Company lawConsumption. Consumer protection
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Study on consumers’ attitudes towards Terms and Conditions : (T&Cs) ; Final report
Title (other): Study on consumers’ attitudes towards online Terms and Conditions : (T&Cs) ; Executive Summary | Consumers’ attitudes
towards Terms and Conditions : (T&Cs) ; Fact sheet | Terms & Conditions :Tired of ticking without checking?
Abstract
Previous research has shown that when buying products and services online, the vast majority of consumers accept Terms and Conditions (T&Cs) without even reading them. The current research examined effects of interventions aimed at making consumers aware of the quality of such T&Cs. This was done by 1) shortening and simplifying the T&Cs and 2) adding a quality cue to an online store, such as the presence of a logo of a national consumer organisation accompanied by the statement “these terms and conditions are fair”. The main study consisted of three experiments and was conducted in 12 Member States with 1000 respondents in each Member State. In each experiment, consumers visited an online storeand went through all the steps of an ordering process. One of these steps was accepting the T&Cs. Key findings are that shortening and simplifying the terms and conditions results in improved readership of the T&Cs, a slightly better understanding of the T&Cs, and a more positive attitude towards the T&Cs. Moreover, adding a quality cue to an online store increases trust and purchase intentions. Which quality cue is trusted the most depends on what type of online store consumers are visiting. For domestic online stores, a quality cue by a national consumer organisation is trusted most; for foreign online stores, a quality cue by a European consumer organisation is trusted most. The patterns were similar across Member States.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
7.3 Experiment 1: Increasing transparency
7.4 Experiment 2: Effortless awareness
7.5Experiment 3: Effortless awareness
8 CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
APPENDIX A. DETAILED METHODOLOGIES
APPENDIX B. PRELIMINARY STUDY 1
APPENDIX C. PRELIMINARY STUDY 2
APPENDIX D. MAIN STUDY
APPENDIX E: TERMS AND CONDITIONS IN THE MAIN STUDY
APPENDIX F: COUNTRY-SPECIFIC RESULTS IN THE MAIN STUDY
| EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
1.1.1 Why are T&Cs lengthy and complex?
1.1.2 Why do consumers accept T&Cs blindly?1.2 Study purpose
1.3 Structure of the report
2 LITERATURE REVIEW: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF NON-READERSHIP
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Causes of non-readership
2.2.1 Cost/benefit beliefs
2.2.2 Normative beliefs
2.2.3 Control beliefs
2.2.4 Other causes of non-readership
2.3 Consequences of non-readership
3 POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS: INCREASING TRANSPARENCY AND CREATING EFFORTLESS AWARENESS
3.1 Increasing transparency
3.1.1 How to increase transparency
3.1.2 Reasons why traders may (not) want to increase transparency of T&Cs
3.2 Creating effortless awareness
3.2.1 Increasing general awareness of consumer rights
3.2.2 Increasing specific awareness of consumer rights
3.2.3 Adding quality cues on online stores as indicators of the substantive quality of terms and conditions
4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4.1General approach
4.2 Brief overview of the methodologies of the studies
4.2.1 Preliminary study 1
4.2.1 Preliminary study 2
4.2.3 Main study
5 PRELIMINARY STUDY 1: GENERAL AND SPECIFICAWARENESS OF CONSUMER RIGHTS
5.1 Online purchasing behaviour
5.2 Consumers’ awareness of their general rights
5.3 Alternative strategies to get informed about consumer rights and obligations
5.4 Experienced regret
6 PRELIMINARY ONLINE STUDY 2: QUALITY CUES AND CONSUMER DETRIMENT
6.1 Part 1: The use of quality cues to assess the reliability of T&Cs
6.2Part 2: Negative consequences of not being sufficiently informed about terms and conditions
6.3 Part 3: Consumer characteristics
7 THE MAIN STUDY
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Familiarity with online stores and consumer organisations
Author: Elshout, Maartje | Elsen, Millie | Leenheer, Jorna
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher | Ecorys | Universiteit van Tilburg | Universiteit van Amsterdam | GfK | Europäische Kommission / Consumers, Health, Agriculture and Food E
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Amt für Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2016
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: Specific Contract n° 2014 85 12 | Framework Contract -EAHC/2011/CP/Ol/ECORYS | 978-92-9200-706-5 | EB-01-16-117-EN-N | 978-00-00-00000-0 | NA-AD-14-001-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EUinternetpurchase patternsales contractconsumer educationconsumer protection
Subject: Consumption. Consumer protection
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
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