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Title: Report of the Ad Hoc EIFAC/EC Working Party on Market Perspectives for European Freshwater Aquaculture
Title (other): Brussels, Belgium, 14-16 May 2001
Abstract
The ad hoc EIFAC/EC Working Party on Market Perspectives of European Freshwater Aquaculture met to address the current situation of the freshwater aquaculture sector in the EIFAC region with particular focus on problems in marketing. The outcome of the workshop aims to provide key information and strategic advice on how to fulfil the production potential of the sector to (i) policy makers, administrators and legislators; (ii) future investors; (iii) consumers, and, particularly, (iv) producers. Trout and carp (about 94 per cent) dominate European aquaculture, whereas there are other promising candidates for culture that have not been profitably exploited. The freshwater aquaculture industry in Europe is product or producer driven along traditional lines and suffers particularly from a lack of vertical integration, linking producers to consumers through the marketing chain. The producers will remain at a disadvantage unless they develop better links through association or cooperation. While the preparation and implementation of marketing plans is a responsibility of the industry, and must be financed from this source, additional progress and great benefit could be derived from a comprehensive policy framework. Aquaculture as a food producing system in some cases has been perceived as being in conflict with other parts of the ecosystem. This can best be addressed by the development and dissemination of codes of good aquaculture practice. While the demand for organically produced aquaculture products is growing, certification is still largely based on the standards of private certification bodies.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
1. Background
2. Status of European freshwater aquaculture
3. Regulatory framework
4. Production, products and sales
5. Food quality and safety, traceability and labelling
6. Impact on trade of environmental and health/hygiene
Legislation: a trade barrier?
7. Markets, distribution and trade
8. New markets, new competitors and promotion
9. Conclusions and recommendations
Appendix 1 Agenda
Appendix 2 List of participants
Appendix 3 Summary of some codes of conduct and certification programmes that impact on the aquaculture sector
Appendix 4 Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats table
Appendix 5 Papers presented
Series Title: EIFAC Occasional Paper ; 35
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Fischerei
Contributer: European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission
Year: 2001
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: AquacultureCommon Fisheries PolicyFishery policyEUfisherymarketing
Subject: Fishery products. Aquatic fauna. Fishery production
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the documentQuelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Study on the impact of marketing through social media, online games and mobile applications on children's behaviour :
Final Report
Title (other): Study on the impact of marketing through social media, online games and mobile applications on children's behaviour :
Executive Summary | The impact of online marketing on children’s behaviour : Factsheet (en) | The impact of online
marketing on children’s behaviour
Abstract
The European Online Games, Social Media and Mobile Application sector has grown substantially in recent years and children are exposed to increasingly sophisticated marketing techniques online which are often outside the purview of existing regulatory frameworks. This study aims to provide a better understanding of online marketing to children and to inform effective policy measures for the protection of children as consumers. The study uses a range of information sources, including a systematic literature review, a review of legislation and regulatory framework at EU and Member State level, in-depth analysis of games, focus groups with parents and children, a survey with parents, and behavioural experiments on advergames and in-app purchases. The study finds that online marketing practices have an impact on children, and that children have difficulties recognizing marketing content, in activating defence mechanisms and in taking decisions. The analysis also shows that although parents play an important role in mediating their children’s online behaviour, parents are often not fully aware of the risks their children are exposed to in online environments. The study concludes with policy recommendations focussing on policies to address children as a particularly vulnerable consumer group.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
1 INTRODUCTION
2 SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH
2.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
2.2 FOCUS
2.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
2.4 PHASES: RESEARCH PROCESS
2.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
3 RESEARCH METHODS OF THE STUDY
3.1 SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
3.2 REVIEW OF LEGISLATION AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
3.3 IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS OF GAMES
3.3.1 Screening process
3.3.2 Selection
3.3.3 Indicators
3.3.4 Procedure
3.4 FOCUS GROUPS
3.4.1 Scope
3.4.2 Materials
3.4.3 Distribution of participants and screening criteria
3.5 PARENTS’ SURVEY
3.5.1 Questionnaire design
3.5.2 Target and sampling
3.5.3 Fieldwork process
3.6 EXPERIMENTS
3.6.1 Advergame experiment
3.6.2 In-app purchase experiment
4 MARKETING TECHNIQUES OVERVIEW
4.1 MAPPING OF MARKETING TECHNIQUES AND PROBLEMATIC PRACTICES
4.2 ONLINE GAMES AND PLATFORMS FEATURES
4.2.1 Advertisement features
4.2.2 Games features
4.2.3 User engagement
4.3 PROTECTIVE MEASURES
4.3.1 Overview
4.3.2 Protective measures in place in the online games analysed
4.3.3 Key platform user policies analysis
4.4 SUMMARY OF KEY RESULTS
5 CHILDREN’S PERSPECTIVES AND EXPERIENCES
5.1 ADVERTISEMENT AND CHILDREN: GENERAL THEORIES
5.2 KEY DETERMINANTS OF CHILDREN’S VULNERABILITY
5.2.1 Gender
5.2.2 Age
5.2.3 Socio-economic status
5.2.4 Internet use and peer pressure
5.3 IMPACT OF MARKETING ON CHILDREN
5.3.1 Impact on behaviour
5.3.2 Impact on perceptions and behavioural intentions
5.4 IMPACT OF ADVERTISEMENTS ON DRINKING BEHAVIOUR
5.5 CHILDREN’S VIEWS (11 AND 12 YEARS OLD)
5.5.1 Online advertisement perception
5.5.2 Children's perceptions of the impact of online marketing on their own behaviour
5.5.3 Social media
5.5.4 Privacy
5.5.5 Advergames and drinking games
5.5.6 In-app purchase
5.6 ACTUAL INFLUENCE OF SOPHISTICATED MARKETING TECHNIQUES – RESULTS FROM BEHAVIOURAL EXPERIMENTS
5.6.1 Advergame experiment
5.6.2 In-app purchase
5.7 SUMMARY OF KEY RESULTS
| 6 PARENTS’ PERSPECTIVES AND THEIR REGULATORY STRATEGIES
6.1 PARENTS' REGULATION OF THEIR CHILDREN’S ONLINE ACTIVITIES
6.2 WHAT ARE PARENTS CONCERNED ABOUT?
6.2.1 Parents' perceptions of risks
6.2.2 The relationship between perceived risk and likelihood of online hazards
6.2.3 Online games and advergames
6.2.4 In-app purchase
6.3 WHAT INFLUENCES PARENTAL CONCERNS?
6.3.1 Experience
6.3.2 Country differences in risk perception of online hazards
6.3.3 Children's age
6.3.4 Social status
6.3.5 Education
6.3.6 Parents' mediation style
6.4 PARENTS’ VIEW AS TO WHAT SHOULD BE DONE? AND WHO SHOULD DO IT?
6.4.1 Protective measures
6.4.2 Locus of responsibility
6.4.3 Protective measures related to advertising in online games
6.4.4 Protective measures related to in-app purchases
6.4.5 Protective measures and parents’ mediating style
6.5 FOCUS GROUP: PARENTS' OWN REGULATION OF THEIR CHILDREN'S ONLINE ACTIVATES
6.6 SUMMARY OF KEY RESULTS
7 MAPPING AND CLASSIFICATION OF POLICY INTERVENTIONS
7.1 BACKGROUND
7.2 REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
7.2.1 Directive 2011/83/EU on Consumer Rights (CRD)
7.2.2 Directive 2010/13/EU on Audiovisual Media Services (AVMSD)
7.2.3 Directive 2005/29/EC on Unfair Commercial Practices (UCPD)
7.2.4 Directive 95/46/EC on Data Protection (DPD)
7.2.5 Directive 2000/31/EC on Electronic Commerce (ECD)
7.3 SELF-REGULATORY INITIATIVES AT EU LEVEL
7.3.1 Self-Regulation in the EU Advertising Sector
7.3.2 The Responsible Marketing Pact
7.3.3 Media Smart
7.3.4 CEO Coalition to make better Internet for kids
7.3.5 Safer Social Networking Principles for the EU
7.3.6 The EU Pledge: Nutrition criteria
7.4 MEMBER STATES’ APPROACHES ALONG REGULATORY REGIMES
7.4.1 Balancing regulation and self-regulation in the area of advertising
7.4.2 Co-regulatory initiatives in the area of advertising
7.4.3 Self-regulatory initiatives in the area of advertising
7.5 SUMMARY OF KEY RESULTS
8 CONCLUSIONS
| 8.1 PROBLEMATIC PRACTICES IN ONLINE GAMES
8.1.1 How problematic practices in online games can be identified
8.1.2 Marketing practices employed by the industry
8.1.3 Protective measures present in online games
8.2 IMPACT OF MARKETING ON CHILDREN AND THEIRBEHAVIOUR
8.2.1 The consumer behaviour of an average child
8.2.2 Impact of marketing on children's behaviour
8.2.3 Children's own perceptions of online marketing
8.3 PARENTS' RISK PERCEPTIONS AND REGULATORY STRATEGIES
8.3.1 Risk perception
8.3.2 Regulatory strategies
8.3.3 Parents' perceptions of what should be done
8.4 MAPPING OF POLICY INTERVENTIONS IN PLACE IN EU MEMBER STATES
9 POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
9.1 MAKING MARKETING AND ADVERTISEMENTS MORE TRANSPARENT TO CONSUMERS AND ENHANCING PROTECTION OF CHILDREN
9.2 INTRODUCE PROTECTIVE MEASURES TARGETING CHILDREN DIRECTLY
9.3 NEED TO UPDATE THE REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
10 REFERENCES
ANNEXES
ANNEX 1 SYSTEMATIC REVIEW SELECTION PROCESS
ANNEX 2 SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REFERENCES
ANNEX 3 SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REFERENCES CLASSIFICATION
ANNEX 4 REGULATION AND PROTECTIVE MEASURE STAKEHOLDERS ONLINE SURVEY
ANNEX 5 SELECTION OF GAMES
ANNEX 6 FOCUS GROUP SCREENINGCRITERIA AND GUIDELINES
ANNEX 7 FOCUS GROUP STIMULI MATERIALS
ANNEX 8 FOCUS GROUP PARENTS AND CHILDREN DISTRIBUTION
ANNEX 9 PARENTS’ SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE
ANNEX 10 PARENTS’ SURVEY TARGET, SAMPLING AND WEIGHTING
ANNEX 11 PARENTS’ SURVEY FIELDWORK PROCESS
ANNEX 12 IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS OF GAMES RESULTS
ANNEX 13 PARENTS’ SURVEY DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS WHOLE SAMPLE
Socio-demographic information
Children’s Internet access, devices and usage
Parents’ digital skills
Parents’ perception of children’s digital skills
Mediation of use and safety: active and restrictive
Severity of risk and vulnerability
Problematic practices online
Self-efficacy
Parents’ recognition of digital content
ANNEX 14 PARENTS’ SURVEY DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS BY COUNTRY
United Kingdom
Spain
| France
Italy
Netherlands
Germany
Poland
Sweden
Author (Corp. Body): London School of Economics and Political Science | Fundació per a la Universität Oberta de Catalunya | Block de ideas SL, Tech i
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Amt für Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2016
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-9200-707-2 | EB-02-16-118-EN-N | Contract n° EACH/FWC/ 2013 85 08 | 978-92-9200-707-2 | EB-02-16-118-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: parentsEUchildprotection of children in publicmarketingmedia behavioronline mediaconsumer protection
Subject: European Community law in generalMediaBuying and selling
Countries Scheme: Germany. General ResourcesEurope. General ResourcesSwedenPolandItaly
SpainFranceUnited KingdomNetherlands
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
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