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Title: Migrants, minorities and education : Documenting discrimination and integration in 15 member states of the European
Union
Abstract
Foreword This study presents a unique collection of material on the situation of migrants and minorities in the European Union in the field of education. Covering the years 2001 to 2003, the study provides a comparative analysis of the state of integration, educational achievements and existing discrimination of minority pupils and students. The main focus of this study is on different forms of disadvantages and unequal treatment experienced by migrants and minorities in school, university and vocational education across the EU Member States. Besides this, an overview of good practices shows each country's efforts to improve the educational situation of these groups, e.g. by carrying out language programmes or offering inter-cultural training. The study finishes with selected recommendations to European Union institutions and Member States. School attainment and the quality of education have a decisive impact on the pupils' future employment opportunities. Unfortunately, evidence gathered in this study shows that despite numerous endeavours to improve the educational accomplishments of migrants and minorities, for the most part, their achievements lag behind that of the majority groups. However, in several countries young migrants of the second generation tend to perform better than their peers who arrived more recently. I hope that this report will raise public and official awareness on the issue of discrimination in the educational sector and will contribute to the creation of equal opportunities for all children and young people living in the EU. The data for this report was compiled for the EUMC by its RAXEN National Focal Points in each of the (at the time) 15 Member States. The EUMC then invited an independent researcher to bring this material together in the form of the current report. I would like to thank the author of the report Dr. Mikael Luciak and all the National Focal Points of the EUMC RAXEN information network for their effort and the comprehensive work they produced. Beate
Table of Contents
Table of bContents
Foreword III
1. Executive summary V
Part One 1
2. Introduction 1
2.1. Objectives and Organization of the Study 1
2.2. Process of Conducting the Comparative Study 2
3. Theoretical, Methodological, and Terminological Considerations 3
3.1. Theoretical and Methodological Framework 3
3.2. Official Terms and Categories 4
Part Two 9
4. Enrolment of Migrants and Minorities in Education 9
4.1. Comparison of Education Enrolment Figures (General) 9
4.2. Enrolment Trends 10
4.3. Comparison of Education Enrolment Figures in Primary Education 13
4.3.1. Nationality and Ethnic Minority Group Size (aggregate data) 13
4.3.2. Largest Nationality and Ethnic Minority Groups 14
4.4. Comparison of Education Enrolment Figures in Secondary Education 19
4.5. Comparison of Enrolment Figures in Special Education 28
4.6. Comparison of University and Higher Education Enrolment Figures 34
5. Achievement and Underachievement 43
5.1. Educational Achievement of Migrants and Ethnic Minorities 43
5.2. Reasons for Academic Underachievement of Migrants and Ethnic Minorities 53
5.2.1. Factors relating to Minority Pupils, their Parents, and the Cultural Group 54
5.2.2. Factors of Institutional Discrimination 54
5.2.3. Factors related to Teachers or Peers 55
5.2.4. Other Factors 56
6. The Educational Situation of National Autochthonous and Indigenous Minorities 57
VII Migrants, minorities and education - European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
7. Language Programmes, Intercultural Education, and "Good Practices" 71
7.1. Native Language Programmes 71
7.2. Second Language Programmes 79 7.3. Intercultural, Multicultural, and Anti-racist Curricula 87
7.4. Good Practice Examples for Reducing Racism, Xenophobia and Anti-Semitism and for Fostering Diversity 95
8. Discrimination and Anti-Discrimination 103
8.1. Legislation and Monitoring of Ethnic Discrimination, Racism, and Inequalities 103
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2005
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 92-9500-818-9
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: educationethnic originmigrantminority
Subject: Social environment. Social behaviour
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Analytical report on education - National focal point for Luxembourg
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: Association de soutien aux travailleurs immigrés, Luxembourg
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2004
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: education systemequal opportunityLuxembourgmigrant
Subject: Educational needs. Access to education
Countries Scheme: Luxembourg
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Analytical report on education - National focal point for Austria
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: Ludwig Boltzmann Institut für Menschenrechte | Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Wien | Institut für Konfliktforschung
Year: 2004
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: education systemequal opportunitymigrantAustria
Subject: Educational needs. Access to education
Countries Scheme: Austria. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Analytical report on education - National focal point for Belgium
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: Centre for Equal Opportunities and Opposition to Racism (CEOOR), Brussels
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2004
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: Belgiumeducation systemequal opportunitymigrant
Subject: Educational needs. Access to education
Countries Scheme: Belgium
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Analytical report on education - National focal point for Denmark
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: Documentary and Advisory Center on Racial Discrimination
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2004
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: education systemequal opportunityDenmarkmigrant
Subject: Educational needs. Access to education
Countries Scheme: Denmark
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Analytical report on education - National focal point for Spain
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: Movimiento por la Paz, el Desarme y la Libertad, Madrid
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2004
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: education systemequal opportunitymigrantSpain
Subject: Educational needs. Access to education
Countries Scheme: Spain
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Analytical report on education - National focal point for Finland
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: Finnish League for Human Rights, Helsinki
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2004
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: education systemequal opportunityFinlandmigrant
Subject: Educational needs. Access to education
Countries Scheme: Finland
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Analytical report on education - National focal point for France
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: Agence pour le Développement des Relations Interculturelles (ADRI), Paris
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2004
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: education systemequal opportunityFrancemigrant
Subject: Educational needs. Access to education
Countries Scheme: France
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Analytical report on education - National focal point for Germany
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: European Forum for Migration Studies
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2004
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: Germanyeducation systemequal opportunitymigrant
Subject: Educational needs. Access to education
Countries Scheme: Germany. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Analytical report on education - National focal point for Greece
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: ANTIGONE – Information and Documentation Centre, Athens
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2004
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: education systemequal opportunityGreecemigrant
Subject: Educational needs. Access to education
Countries Scheme: Greece
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Analytical report on education - National focal point for Ireland
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: National Consultative Committee on Racism andInterculturalism (NCCRI), Dublin
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2004
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: education systemequal opportunityIrelandmigrant
Subject: Educational needs. Access to education
Countries Scheme: Ireland
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Analytical report on education - National focal point for Italy
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: Cooperation for the Development of EmergingCountries, Florence
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2004
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: education systemequal opportunityItalymigrant
Subject: Educational needs. Access to education
Countries Scheme: Italy
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Analytical report on education - National focal point for The Netherlands
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: University of Leiden Department of Public Administration
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2004
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: Netherlandseducation systemequal opportunitymigrant
Subject: Educational needs. Access to education
Countries Scheme: Netherlands
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Analytical report on education - National focal point for Portugal
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: Research Center on Human and Social Sciences, Porto Salvo
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2004
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: education systemequal opportunitymigrantPortugal
Subject: Educational needs. Access to education
Countries Scheme: Portugal
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Analytical report on education - National focal point for Sweden
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: E PO Foundation, Stockholm
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2004
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: education systemequal opportunitymigrantSweden
Subject: Educational needs. Access to education
Countries Scheme: Sweden
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Analytical report on education - National focal point for United Kingdom
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: Great Britain / Commission for Racial Equality
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2004
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: education systemequal opportunityGreat Britainmigrant
Subject: Educational needs. Access to education
Countries Scheme: United Kingdom
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: National analytical study on housing - RAXEN focal point for Austria
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: Ludwig Boltzmann Institut für Menschenrechte
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2003
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: discriminationethnic groupmigrantAustriahousing market
Subject: Equal opportunities
Countries Scheme: Austria. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: National analytical study on housing - RAXEN focal point for Belgium
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: Centre for Equal Opportunities and Opposition to Racism
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2003
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: Belgiumdiscriminationethnic groupmigranthousing market
Subject: Equal opportunities
Countries Scheme: Belgium
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Fundamental Rights Agencyhttp://fra.europa.eu
Title: National analytical study on housing - RAXEN focal point for Denmark
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: Documentation and Advisory Centre on Racial Discrimination
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2003
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: Denmarkdiscriminationethnic groupmigranthousing market
Subject: Equal opportunities
Countries Scheme: Denmark
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: National analytical study on housing - RAXEN focal point for Spain
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: Movement for Peace, Disarmament and Liberty (MPDL)
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2003
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: discriminationethnic groupmigrantSpainhousing market
Subject: Equal opportunities
Countries Scheme: Spain
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Fundamental Rights Agency(http://fra.europa.eu)
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