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Title: Comparative study on the collection of data to measure the extent and impact of discrimination in a selection of
countries: Medis project (measurement of discriminations): final report on England
Abstract
This report was financed by and prepared for the use of the European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities. The MEDIS project was coordinated by Patrick Simon from the Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques and Martin Clément from Economie et Humanisme (France). As part of its initiatives, the programme specifies that it will support ?the development and dissemination of comparable statistical series data on the scale of discrimination", and "the development and dissemination of methodologies and indicators to assess the effectiveness of anti-discrimination policy and practice?. The synthesis report is based on five national reports covering different countries and the specific one deals with England. [Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
Introduction
I - Anti-discrimination legislation by ground for discrimination
II - The role of the independent authorities
III - Anti-discrimination public policy and legal provisions requiring the use of statistical tools
IV - The census and the "Ethnic question"
V - Appendix
Bibliography
Author: Stavo-Debauge, Joan
Contributer: European Commission / Directorate General for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities | INED Economie & Humanisme
Year: 2004
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: discriminationimmigrationequality of rightshuman rightsracial policysexuality
Subject: Human rightsEqual opportunitiesPublic law. Public administration. ParliamentSociety and social groupsData collection
Countries Scheme: United Kingdom
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Source: European Commission (http://europa.eu.int)
Title: Comparative study on the collection of data to measure the extent and impact of discrimination in a selection of
countries: Medis project (measurement of discriminations): final report on Australia
Abstract
This report was financed by and prepared for the use of the European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities. The MEDIS project was coordinated by Patrick Simon from the Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques and Martin Clément from Economie et Humanisme (France). As part of its initiatives, the programme specifies that it will support 'the development and dissemination of comparable statistical series data on the scale of discrimination", and "the development and dissemination of methodologies and indicators to assess the effectiveness of anti-discrimination policy and practice'. The synthesis report is based on five national reports covering different countries and the specific one deals with Australia. [Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
Introduction
I - Legislation and policy
II - Summary: the use of statistics and their specifications
III - The framework for the production of statistical data
IV - Summary on the production of statistics
Conclusion
References
Appendix
Author: Clément, Martin
Contributer: European Commission / Directorate General for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities | INED Economie & Humanisme
Year: 2004
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: discriminationethnic grouplegislationequality of rightsracial policysocial datasocial justice
Subject: Law. Public Administration. PoliticsHuman rightsEqual opportunitiesRacial policySocial classesData collection
Countries Scheme: AUSTRALIA / OCEANIA
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Source: European Commission (http://europa.eu.int)
Title: Reversing the burden of proof : Practical dilemmas at the European and national level
Abstract
This report examines the background to EU rules on the burden of proof, the development of principles laid down in the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) and their application to the Racial and Employment Equality Directives in proceedings before civil and labour courts. Given that the bulk of this case law is related to the gender ground, it will necessarily rely on case law relating to gender discrimination. However, the focus will – as much as possible – be on judgments on race and ethnic origin, age, disability, religion and sexual orientation. [Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
Executive Summary
Introduction
I. Origins of the burden of proof provisions
II. European law on equal treatment and non-discrimination
II.1. The gender equality provisions
II.2. The Equal Treatment and Non-discrimination Directives
III. Previous studies on the burden of proof
IV. Recent judgments of the CJEU relevant to the burden of proof
V. Theoretical underpinnings and general considerations
V.1. General note
V.2. Discovery of facts: evidence
V.3. The form of discrimination to be proven
V.4. Conduct
V.5. Harm
V.6. Protected ground
V.7. Comparators
V.8. Bias, causation, negligence and intent
V.9. Prima facie cases: the point of (no) return
V.10. Justification defence
V.11. Rebuttal
V.12. Procedural scheme
VI. Implementation in Member States
VI.1. General trends and patterns
VI.2. Application of the burden of proof rules in practice
VII. Practical concerns relating to the burden of proof rules
VII.1. Right to information
VII.2. Establishing a comparator
VII.3. The prima facie case
VII.4. Potentially different standards according to the protected ground
VII.5. Justification and rebuttal
VII.6. Different outcomes according to the legal forum used
VII.7. Different outcomes according to whether the litigant is an individual or an NGO
VIII. Possible improvements to the implementation of the burden of proof provisions
Conclusions
Bibliography
Table of legislation
List of cases
Author: Farkas, Lilla | O’Farrell, Orlagh
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher | Europäisches Netz unabhängiger Sachverständiger im Bereich der Nichtdiskriminierung | Human European Consultancy, Utrecht | Migration Policy Group
Publisher: Amt für Amtliche Veröffentlichungen, Luxemburg
Year: 2015
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-44625-2 | DS-06-14-238-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: old ageequal rights lawlabor lawhandicapemployment policydiscriminationethnic originEU
court of justicereligious freedomracial policylawlegal usagesexualityjudgment or sentencecivil law
Subject: European Community law in generalCivil law in generalLabour law. Social lawHuman rightsRacial policySocial valuesReligious practice
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Developing Anti-Discrimination Law in Europe : The 28 EU Member States, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,
Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Turkey compared
Abstract
Over 10 years ago a major and unprecedented evolution occurred in the European Union with the adoption in 2000 of two pieces of EU legislation in the field of anti-discrimination: the Racial Equality Directive (2000/43/EC) and the Employment Equality Directive (2000/78/EC). The transposition and implementation of these legal provisions into the national legal systems of the 28 Member States is described in a series of annually updated country reports produced by the European Network of Legal Experts in the Non-discrimination Field. In addition, the Network also includes candidate countries (the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland and Turkey) and, since 2012, EEA countries (Liechtenstein and Norway). The Network annually reports on their national legislation compared with the anti-discrimination standards set by the EU. This Network was established and is managed by the Human European Consultancy and the Migration Policy Group. The national reports are written by independent national experts in each country covered by the Network. The information is provided in response to questions set out in a template format which closely follows the provisions of the two Directives, although all countries included in the Network do not have the same compliance obligations. The 33 reports cover national law, the establishment of enforcement mechanisms, jurisprudence and the adoption of other measures. They contain information current as of 1 January 2014. As such, they are a valuable source of information on national anti-discrimination law and can be found on the Network’s website at: www.non-discrimination.net. This Comparative Analysis, drafted by Isabelle Chopin and Catharina Germaine (Migration Policy Group), compares and analyses the information set out in the 2013 country reports in a format mirroring that of the country reports themselves and draws some conclusions from the information contained in them. [Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
Preface
Introduction
1 Protected grounds of discrimination
A. Introduction to the transposition of the anti-discrimination Directives
B. Which grounds are covered?...
D.Religion or belief
Specific provisions on ... – ethos-based organisations
E.Disability
Specific provisions on disability – the reasonable accommodation duty
...
... disability – health and safety
F.Sexual orientation
G.Age
... age
H.Assumed and associated discrimination
I.Multiple discrimination
2 Definitions and scope
A. Direct discrimination
...
B. Indirect discrimination
...
C. Harassment
...
D. Instructions to discriminate...
E. Personal scope
F. Material scope
Employment
Social protection
Social advantages
Education
Access to and supply of goods and services3 Exceptions to the principle of equal treatment and positive action
A. Genuine and determining occupational requirements
B. Armed forces and other specific occupations
C. Nationality
...
D. Family benefits
E. Public security, public order, criminal offences, protection of health, and protection of the rights and freedoms of others
F. Other exceptions
G. Positive action
...
4 Access to justice and effective enforcement
A. Judicial and administrative procedures
Legal action in the private sector
... public sector
Obstacles to effective access to justice
B. Legal standing and associations
Entities which may engage in procedures
...
To engage ‘on behalf of’
Collective redress
Legitimate interest
C. Burden of proof
D. Victimisation
...
E. Sanctions and remediesA. Grounds covered
...
B. Competencies of equality bodies
6 Implementation and compliance
A. Dissemination of information and social and civil dialogue
... and awareness-raising
...
Dissemination of information and wareness-raising
...
B. Ensuring compliance
Conclusion
Author: Chopin, Isabelle ; 1026392233 | Germaine-Sahl, Catharina ; 1053777302
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher | Europäisches Netz unabhängiger Sachverständiger im Bereich der Nichtdiskriminierung | Human European Consultancy, Utrecht | Migration Policy Group
Publisher: Amt für Amtliche Veröffentlichungen, Luxemburg
Year: 2015
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-46193-4 | DS-AW-15-001-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: equal rights lawhandicapemployment policydiscriminationEUhealth policyraceracial policy
legal usagereligionsocial policy
Subject: European Community law in generalSocial policy. Social welfareEqual opportunitiesRacial policySick and handicapped
Countries Scheme: Europe. General ResourcesIcelandNorway
Republic of MacedoniaLiechtensteinTurkey
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Developing Anti-Discrimination Law in Europe : The 28 EU Member States, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,
Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Turkey compared
Abstract
Over 10 years ago a major and unprecedented evolution occurred in the European Union with the adoption in 2000 of two pieces of EU legislation in the field of anti-discrimination: the Racial Equality Directive (2000/43/EC) and the Employment Equality Directive (2000/78/EC). The transposition and implementation of these legal provisions into the national legal systems of the 28 Member States is described in a series of annually updated country reports produced by the European Network of Legal Experts in the Non-discrimination Field. In addition, the Network also includes candidate countries (the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland and Turkey) and, since 2012, EEA countries (Liechtenstein and Norway).2 The Network annually reports on their national legislation compared with the anti-discrimination standards set by the EU. This Network was established and is managed by the Human European Consultancy and the Migration Policy Group. The national reports are written by independent national experts in each country covered by the Network. The information is provided in response to questions set out in a template format which closely follows the provisions of the two Directives, although all countries included in the Network do not have the same compliance obligations. The 33 reports cover national law, the establishment of enforcement mechanisms, jurisprudence and the adoption of other measures. They contain information current as of 1 January 2013.3 As such, they are a valuable source of information on national anti-discrimination law and can be found on the Network’s website at: www.non-discrimination.net. [Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
Preface
Introduction
1 Protected grounds of discrimination
A. Which grounds are covered?
Table: Protected grounds
B. Racial or ethnic origin
C. Religion or belief
Specific provisions ... – ethos-based organisations
D. Disability
Specific provisions ... – the reasonable accommodation duty
Table: ...
Specific provisions on disability – health and safety
E. Sexual orientation
F. Age
Specific provisions on age
G. Assumed and associated discrimination
H. Multiple discrimination
2 Definitions and scope
A. Direct discrimination
...
B. Indirect discrimination
...
C. Harassment
...
D. Instructions to discriminate
...
E. Personal scope
F. Material scope
...
Employment
Social protection
Social advantages
Education
Access to and supply of goods and services
Beyond the Directives
3 Exceptions to the principle of equal treatment and positive action
A. Genuine and determining occupational requirements
B. Armed forces and other specific occupations
C. Nationality
...
D. Family benefits
E. Public security, public order, criminal offences, protection of health, and protection of the rights and freedoms of others
F. Other exceptions
G. Positive action
...
4 Access to justice and effective enforcement
A. Judicial and administrative procedures
Legal action in the private sector
Legal action in the public sector
Obstacles to effective access to justice
B. Legal standing and associations
Entities that may engage in procedures
...
To engage ‘on behalf of’
Collective redress
Legitimate interest
C. Burden of proof
D. Victimisation
...
E. Sanctions and remedies
5 The role of equality bodies compared
...
6 Implementation and compliance
A. Dissemination of information and social and civil dialogue
Dissemination of information and awareness raising
Social and civil dialogue
B. Ensuring compliance
Conclusion
ANNEX 1 ...
...
Author: Chopin, Isabelle ; 1026392233 | Germaine-Sahl, Catharina ; 1053777302
Contributer: Human European Consultancy, Utrecht | Migration Policy Group | Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz | Europäisches Netz unabhängiger Sachverständiger im Bereich der Nichtdiskriminierung
Publisher: Amt für Amtliche Veröffentlichungen, Luxemburg
Year: 2013
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-36348-1 | DS-AW-14-001-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: equal rights lawhandicapemployment policydiscriminationEUhealth policyIcelandLiechtenstein
MacedoniaNorwayraceracial policylegal usagereligionsocial policyTurkey
Subject: European Community law in generalSocial policy. Social welfareEqual opportunitiesRacial policySick and handicapped
Countries Scheme: Europe. General ResourcesIcelandNorway
Republic of MacedoniaLiechtensteinTurkey
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
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