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Title: External services, structural change and industrial performance
Title (other): Background report for "the European competitiveness report 2000" | Enterprise DG working paper
Table of Contents
Table of contents
1. Introduction 1
2. The Locational Dimension 1
3. Evolution of the Service Economy 3
3.1 The Historical Record 3
3.2 The Sources of Structural Change 6
3.2.1 Increasing Demand for Services 7
3.2.2 Technological and Organisational Change 7
3.2.3 Shifts in the International Patterns of Comparative Advantage 8
3.2.4 Decomposition of Output Growth 8
3.3 What Follows Tertiarisation? 13
4. External Service Inputs and Competitive Performance 17
5. Policy Implications 23
Author: Peneder, Michael | Kaniovski, Serguei | Dachs, Bernhard
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Unternehmen
Year: 2000
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: Industrial Policycompetition
Subject: Industrial policy. Industrial developmentMarkets. Competition
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
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Title: Europe's position in quality competition
Title (other): Background report for "the European competitiveness report 2000" | Enterprise DG working paper
Table of Contents
Table of contents
1. The necessity to compete in quality 1
2. Quality: definitions and main indicators chosen 4
2.1. Quality and its links to competitiveness 4
2.2 Link to competitiveness 6
2.3 The three main indicators for quality 7
3. Europe as provider of quality: a contested quality premium 11
3.1. The unit value as an indicator of quality 11
3.2. Unit values differ widely across Europe 11
3.3. The quality premium in European exports 16
3.4 Relation to other indicators (GDP per capita) 18
4. The importance of quality for specific industries 19
4.1. Quality as an exogenous characteristic and strategic result 19
4.3 Industry characteristics related to the importance of the quality mode 23
4.4 Europe's trade surplus comes from quality sensitive industries 25
5. Specialisation of countries in quality segments 27
5.1.Upgrading quality within industries 27
5.2 Export specialisation for countries in price segment 28
5.3 Climbing up the quality ladder 30
5.4 Country specific specialisation in high price segments 31
6. Towards a better understanding of competition in quality 34
6.1 Quality and strategy 34
6.2 Country characteristics influence quality position 38
6.3 Comparing Europe to the USA and Japan 39
7. A monitoring system for quality upgrading 42
8. Summary: Europe as a contested provider of quality 46
Annex 1: Abbreviations used 52
Annex 2: Industries with top and low importance of quality 53
References 54
Author: Aiginger, Karl
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Unternehmen
Year: 2000
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: competition
Subject: Industrial economicsProduct development. Product safety
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
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Title: Seventeenth annual report on monitoring the application of community law (1999) - Volume I
Title (other): Introduction ; Situation sector-by-sector
Table of Contents
1. Introduction
1.1 Statistics for 1999
1.2 Transposal of Directives in 1999
1.3 Graphical overview of all the infringement proceedings commenced or handled by the Commission during 1999
1.4 Application by the Commission of Article 228 of the EC Treaty (developments in 1999) 2. Situation sector-by-sector
2.1 Internal market
2.1.1 General strategy for the internal market
2.1.2 Free movement of persons and citizenship of the Union
2.1.2.1 Entry and residence
2.1.2.2 Right to vote and stand in election
2.1.2.3 Regulated professions
2.1.2.4 Independent commercial agents
2.1.3 Free movement of goods
2.1.3.1 Articles 28 et seq. EC (ex Articles 30 et seq. of the EC Treaty)
2.1.3.2 Preventive rules provided for by Directive 98/34/EC (formerly 83/189/EEC)
2.1.3.3 Harmonised legislation
2.1.3.3.1 Foodstuffs
2.1.3.3.2 Pharmaceutical products
2.1.3.3.3 Chemicals
2.1.3.3.4 Motor vehicles, tractors and motorcycles
2.1.3.3.5 Construction products
2.1.3.3.6 Capital goods
2.1.3.3.7 Cosmetics
2.1.3.3.8 Textiles and shoes
2.1.3.3.9 Liability for defective products
2.1.3.4 Special arrangements relating to freedom of movement
2.1.3.5 Customs Union
2.1.4 Free movement of services and right of establishment
2.1.4.1 Articles 43 et seq. and Articles 49 et seq
2.1.4.2 Financial services
2.1.4.3 Commercial communications
2.1.4.4 The media
2.1.5 Free movement of capital
2.1.6 The business environment
2.1.6.1 Company law
2.1.6.2 Intellectual property
2.1.6.3 Data protection
2.1.6.4 Public procurement
2.1.6.5 Direct taxation
2.1.6.6 VAT
2.1.6.7 Other indirect taxes
2.2 Competition
2.2.1 Public enterprises
2.2.2 Monopolies
2.3 Enterprise policy, distributive trades, tourism and cooperatives
2.4 Education, training and youth
2.5 Social affairs
2.5.1 Free movement of workers
2.5.2 Equal treatment for men and women
2.5.3 Working conditions
2.5.4
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission / Generalsekretariat
Year: 2000
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: COM (2000) 92 final
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: domestic marketEuropean Lawdirectivecompetitioneconomic sektor
Subject: European Community law in generalEconomic policy. Planning. Social policy. Social problems
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
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Title: European competitiveness report 2003
Title (other): Commission staff working document
Series Title:Commission of the European Communities - SEC ; 2003,1299
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission
Publisher: Europäische Kommission
Year: 2003
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Geschäfts- und Jahresberichte
Keyword: Competitioncompetition
Subject: Markets. Competition
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
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Title: Screening report Turkey : Chapter 8: Competition Policy
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Erweiterung
Year: 2006
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EU expansionTurkeycompetition
Subject: European Community external relations and associated countries
Countries Scheme: Turkey
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Title: Business Platform for Multilingualism
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Bildung und Kultur
Year: 2011
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: labor marketmultilingualismcompetition
Subject: Languages. Linguistics
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
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Title: Study on the application of Directive 2005/29/EC on Unfair Commercial Practices in the EU : Part 1 – Synthesis Report ;
Final Report
Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1 INTRODUCTION
2 METHODOLOGY
3 NATIONAL PROVISIONS AGAINST UNFAIR COMMERCIAL PRACTICES
3.1 Background
3.2 National implementation of the UCPD
3.3 National provisions against unfair commercial practices in financial services
3.4 National provisions against unfair commercial practices in immovable property
3.5 The concept of ‘consumer’ applied in financial services and immovable property
3.6 Reasons for the application of national provisions against unfair commercial practices
4 MOST COMMON UNFAIR COMMERCIAL PRACTICES
4.1 Most common unfair commercial practices in financial services
4.2 Most common unfair commercial practices in immovable property
5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
ANNEX I: COUNTRY FACT SHEETS
ANNEX II: SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRES
ANNEX III: LITERATURE
ANNEX IV: OVERVIEW OF STAKEHOLDERS CONSULTED AND SURVEY RESPONDENTS
Author (Corp. Body): Civic Consulting
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz
Year: 2011
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EUfiscal policybusiness policyCommercial Lawcompetition
Subject: European Community law in generalCommercial law. Company lawTrade. Service industry
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
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Title: Study on the application of Directive 2005/29/EC on Unfair Commercial Practices in the EU : Part 2 – Country Reports ;
Final Report
Table of Contents
1 AUSTRIA
2 BULGARIA
3 DENMARK
4 FRANCE
5 GERMANY
6 ITALY
7 NETHERLANDS
8 POLAND
9 SPAIN
10 UNITED KINGDOM
Author (Corp. Body): Civic Consulting
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz
Year: 2011
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EUfiscal policybusiness policyCommercial Lawcompetition
Subject: European Community law in generalCommercial law. Company lawTrade. Service industry
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
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Title: Pilot field study on the functioning of the national judicial systems for the application of competition law rules :
Final Report
Table of Contents
1 Introduction
1.1 Purpose, scope and structure of the study
2 Methodology
2.1 Methodological approach to Part A
2.2 Methodological approach to Part B
2.3 Methodological tool for Part C: Analysis of trends in practices and recurring obstacles
3 Comparative analysis of the organisation of national judicial systems
3.1 Competent courts
3.2 Modes of Alternative Dispute Resolution
4 Comparative analysis of key features of competition law cases and length of legal proceeding
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Number of cases identified
4.3 Parties involved
4.4 Costs
4.5 Other useful information
5 Analysis of feedback on efficiency, quality and independence of the national judicial systems
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Responses received
5.3 Analysis of feedback provided by national judges competent for the application of EU competition law
5.4 Analysis of feedback provided by legal practitioners competent for the application of EU competition law
5.5 Analysis of feedback provided by parties to procedures of EU competition law
Annex 1 National Legislation
Annex 2 National Competition Authorities
Annex 3 Interim measures for judicial review
Annex 4 Court Hearings and Enforcement Orders
EU Country Factsheets
Author: Nierop, Petra van
Contributer: ICF GHK | Milieu Ltd
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz
Year: 2014
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: Multiple Framework Contract JUST/2011/EVAL/01
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EUnation-statelegal usagecompetition
Subject: European Community law in generalEconomic law. Competition law
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
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Title: Screening report Iceland : Chapter 8 – Competition Policy
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Erweiterung
Contributer: Europäische Kommission
Year: 2011
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EUjoining of the European UnionIcelandcompetitioneconomic law
Subject: European Community external relationsEconomic law. Competition law
Countries Scheme: Iceland
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Title: Screening report Montenegro : Chapter 8 – Competition Policy
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Erweiterung
Year: 2012
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EUjoining of the European UnionMontenegrocompetitioneconomic law
Subject: European Community external relationsEconomic law. Competition law
Countries Scheme: Montenegro
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Title: Central Asia Invest : Boosting small business competitiveness
Table of Contents
FOREWORD
CENTRAL ASIA – EU SUPPORT TO PRIORITIES DEFINED IN CLOSE DISCUSSIONS WITH GOVERNMENTS
PRIVATE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT IN CENTRAL ASIA – CHALLENGES AND THE ROLE OF EU IN OVERCOMING THEM
CENTRAL ASIA INVEST PROJECTS – SUPPORTING THE PRIVATE SECTOR
CENTRAL ASIA INVEST PROGRAMME - THE RESULTS
THE PROJECT “INVESTMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS IN CENTRAL ASIA” OF THE OECD EURASIA COMPETITIVENESS PROGRAMME
CENTRAL ASIA INVEST NETWORKING MEETINGS
CENTRAL ASIA INVEST PROJECTS
FIND OUT MORE
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Internationale Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung, Brüssel
Publisher: Amt für Amtliche Veröffentlichungen, Luxemburg
Year: 2015
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-50333-7 | MN-01-15-500-EN-C
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: development aid policyEUinvestmentprivate sectorcompetitionCentral Asia
Subject: Aid programmesEuropean Community external relations
Countries Scheme: Europe. General ResourcesCentral Asia. General Resources
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Title: Study on Civil Security R&D in major third countries (SER3CO) : Final Report, within the Framework Contract of Security
Studies – ENTR/09/050
Abstract
Policy attention to the security industry increased substantially after the terrorist attacks in the U.S. on September 11th, 2001. With an increased demand for security, the global security market grew a tenfold to around €100 billion in 2011. Many studies expect that growth of the worldwide security market will continue to exceed the growth rate of world GDP.In summer 2012 the European Commission launched an action plan for an innovative and competitive security industry to enhance growth and increase employment in the EU’s security industry. Better understanding of the main competitive strengths and weaknesses of the security industries in the EU and in major other countries should facilitate the development of policy measures to generate a business environment that enables the EU security industry to keep its leading position.One of the main problems in the EU security market identified by the Commission is its fragmentation along national and sometimes even regional boundaries. One of the first steps to address this problem the Commission proposes is to set up an EU-wide certification system for airport screening (detection) equipment and for alarm systems 3. Insight in costs and benefits of harmonized certification schemes will provide essential information for establishing such schemes at the EU level....The study has been executed by a team of specialists from the framework consortium partners ECORYS, DECISION and TNO, in collaboration with associated partners FOI (Sweden), HCSS (the Netherlands) and PLANCONSULT (Austria). The latter were invited for their access to sources and contacts in respective countries.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
Executive Summary
1 Scope and objectives of the study
1.1 General Context – Background
1.2 Aims and Objectives of the study
1.3 Approach
1.4 Chapter Outline
2 Comparative overview of the security industry
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Global and European security market overview
2.2.1 General issues related to market size estimates
2.2.2 Security market taxonomy
2.2.3 Global and EU security market estimates
2.3 Overview of third country security markets
2.3.1 USA
2.3.2 Russia
2.3.3 Japan
2.3.4 South Korea
2.3.5 Israel
2.3.6 China
2.3.7 Brazil
2.4 Competitive position of the airport screening and alarm systems industries
2.4.1 Introduction
2.4.2 Overview of the airport screening sector
2.4.3 Overview of the intruder and fire alarms sector
2.5 Summary and conclusions
2.5.1 Competitive position of selected countries
2.5.2 Market attractiveness of selected countries
3 Alarm systems and airport screening equipment: certification and conformity assessment
3.1 Comparative overview of certification schemes around the world
3.1.1 Alarm systems
3.1.2 Airport screening equipment
3.2 EU Certification and conformity assessment – CBA alarm systems
3.2.1 Introduction
3.2.2 Baseline
3.2.3 Quantifying the baseline
3.2.4 Policy options
3.3 EU Certification and conformity assessment – CBA airport screening equipment
3.3.1 Baseline scenario
3.3.2 Quantifying the baseline
3.3.3 Policy options
4 Security R&D programmes
4.1 Introduction
4.2General context: overall R&D landscape and security environment
4.2.1 Security environment
4.2.2 National innovation system
4.3 Security R&D
4.3.1 Expenditures
4.3.2 Main actors
4.3.3 Thematic priorities
4.4 Lessons from the security R&D in major third countries and recommendations for the EU
Author (Corp. Body): Ecorys
Contributer: DECISION | TNO | Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Unternehmen und Industrie
Year: 2013
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: FU98407
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: defense mechanismBrazilChinaserviceEUendangermentindustrial sectorIsrael
Japanair trafficsecuritysecurity policySouth KoreaterrorismenterpriseUnited States of Americacompetition
Subject: European Community treaties and agreementsVarious information networks and systems
Countries Scheme: Europe. General ResourcesUSABrazilIsraelChinaJapan
Korea (South)
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Title: Second consumer market study on the functioning of the retail electricity markets for consumers in the EU : Final report
Title (other): Second consumer market study on the functioning of the retail electricity markets for consumers in the EU : Final Report
Annexes | Second consumer market study on the functioning of the retail electricity markets for consumers in the EU :
Country fiches | Second consumer market study on the functioning of the retail electricity markets for consumers in the
EU : Executive Summary | Deuxième étude de marché consommateurs sur le fonctionnement des marchés de détail de
l'électrisité pour les consommateurs de l'UE : Résumé opérationnel
Abstract
This study on the functioning of retail electricity markets for consumers in the EU is the follow up to the first market study conducted in 2009/2010, and published by the European Commission in 2010. The objectives of the current study are to investigate if a well-functioning electricity market is in place for consumers in the EU and assess how the performance of retail electricity markets for consumers has developed since the first market study. The study also examines the extent to which consumers are able to make informed and empowered choices and what motivates their behaviour in the electricity market.The study covers all EU Member States, Iceland and Norway. Between July 2014 and October 2015, the following activities were carried out: consultations with national stakeholders (energy regulators, consumer associations, Alternative Dispute Resolution entities active in the retail energy sector, electricity associations, enforcement bodies and company mediators); a consumer survey measuring consumers’ awareness, attitudes and experiences with electricity services; a behavioural experiment consisting of a ‘‘stay or switch” exercise and a comprehension test of bills and marketing material; a mystery shopping exercise replicating consumers’ experiences in four areas (“questions about billing”, “finding a cheaper tariff”, information available on “switching and complaint handling” and “green tariffs and efficient energy use”); and, a price collection exercise compiling and analysing a comprehensive and representative sample of electricity prices offered to household consumers.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
1. Introduction and background
1.1 Objectives and scope of the study
1.2 Main tasks and methodology used
1.2.1 Main task 1: Regulatory overview and stakeholder consultation
1.2.2 Main task 2: Consumer survey
1.2.3 Main task 3: Price and tariff collection
1.2.4 Main task 4: Mystery shopping
1.2.5 Main task 5: Behavioural experiments
1.3 Transposition of the Third Energy Package and market maturity
1.4 Analysis by respondent characteristics
1.4.1 Socio-demographic characteristics
1.4.2 Affordability of electricity bills
1.4.3 A composite index measuring “conscious” electricity use
1.5 Structure of the report
2. General perceptions and awareness of the electricity market
2.1 General perceptions of the electricity market
2.2 Consumers’ views on overall quality of service
2.3 Consumers’ views on availability and quality of assistance
2.3.1 Consumers who contacted their electricity company in the past 12 months
2.3.2 Main reasons for which consumers had contacted their electricity company
2.3.3 Quality of assistance
2.3.4 Speed of service
2.4 Consumers’ views about availability of information
2.5 Consumers’ awareness about various aspects of their electricity use
2.5.1 Consumers’ awareness about their household’s electricity use
2.5.2 Self-reported awareness about contract terms
2.6 Consumers’ awareness of consumer protection bodies
2.7 Trust in electricity companies and regulators
2.8 Consumers’ views about the role of national energy regulators
3. Choice and comparability
3.1 Consumers’ views on choice in the market
3.2 Consumers’ views on comparability of tariffs and offers
3.2.1 Consumers’ experience with comparing offers and tariffs
3.2.2 Consumers’ views on comparability
3.3 Choice complexity–results of a behavioural experiment
3.3.1 Dripping Information behind a “pop-up” button
3.3.2 Presenting upfront information in a standardised or non-standardised format
| 3.3.3 Share of respondents that clicked the “See the Terms & Conditions” button
3.3.4 Effect of respondent characteristics and behaviours on comprehension
4. Switching
4.1 Regulatory framework related to switching
4.2 Switching rates
...
4.3 Access to information about switching: information found on electricity companies’ websites
4.4 Consumers’ views on ease of switching
4.5 Consumers’ awareness of switching rules
4.6 Reasons for switching
4.7 Barriers to switching/reasons for not switching
...
4.8 Results of the “stay or switch” experiment
5. Billing
5.1 Regulatory framework related to content of electricity bills
5.2 Billing practices/information provided in electricity bills
5.3 Consumers’ understanding of electricity bills
5.4 Quality of assistance related to understanding electricity bills
6. Problems, complaints and complaint handling
6.1 Complaint procedures
6.2 Incidence and type of problems experienced by consumers
6.3 Consumers’ experiences with complaint handling
6.4 Obtaining information about complaint handling
6.5 Problems related to unfair commercial practices and other market issues
7. Tariffs and prices
7.1 Price regulation in place
7.2 Consumers’ views on prices
7.3 Types of tariff available
7.4 Cross Member State comparison of price level
...
7.5 Price structure
7.6 Determinants of prices
7.7 Price trends
7.8 Price convergence
7.9 Availability of cheaper tariffs
...
8. Affordability
8.1 Cross-Member State comparison of expenditure on electricity
...
8.2 Consumers having difficulty paying their electricity bills
...
8.3 Definitions of consumer vulnerability, including energy poverty
8.4 Are there specific groups that can be considered more vulnerable in relation to the energy market?
8.5 Policy measures for consumers in arrears with electricity bills
8.6 Consumers’ awareness of policy measures for consumers in arrears with electricity bills
| 8.7 Consumers benefiting from assistance in paying their electricity bills
9. Consumers’ attitudes towards energy efficiency and renewable energy
9.1 Consumers’ views on energy consumption and energy efficiency
...
9.2 Obtaining information about energy efficiency and related topics
...
9.3 “Green” energy tariffs
...
10. Innovation
10.1 Are electricity companies proactive in putting forward innovations in technology and services?
10.2 Legislation and regulation supporting innovation
10.3 Consumers’ views on bundling
10.4 Main innovations–stakeholders’ views
10.5 Smart metering
...
10.6 Collective switching
...
10.7 Feed-in tariffs
11. Conclusions and recommendations
11.1 General consumer attitudes and awareness
11.2 Consumer awareness
11.3 Information provision
11.4 Quality of service and assistance
11.5 Choice and comparability
11.6 Switching
11.7 Billing
11.8 Prices
11.9 Affordability
11.10 Vulnerable consumers
11.11 Complaints and redress
11.12 Enforcement
11.13 Innovation
| Annex
ANNEX 1 METHODOLOGY OF THE CONSUMER SURVEY
A1.1 Sampling approach and sample size
A1.2 Pilot study
A1.3 The questionnaire
A1.4 Main stage fieldwork
A1.5 Panel information
A1.6 Weighting
ANNEX 2 METHODOLOGY OF THE PRICE COLLECTION EXERCISE
ANNEX 3 METHODOLOGY OF THE EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF DETERMINANTS OF PRICES
A3.1 Variables used in the empirical analysis
A3.2 Correlations between variables used in the empirical analysis
A3.3 Summary statistics of the variables used in the empirical analysis
A3.4 Grouping of variables in empirical analysis: factor analysis
ANNEX 4 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON CONVERGENCE OF PRICES
ANNEX 5 METHODOLOGY OF THE MYSTERY SHOPPING
A5.1 Scenarios tested and mode of evaluation
A5.2 Number of evaluations completed and number of providers evaluated
A5.3 Fieldwork dates
A5.4 Quality control procedures
A5.5 Additional tables for scenario “billing” (content of bills)
A5.6 Additional tables for scenario “billing” (obtaining information by phone)
A5.7 Additional table for scenario “switching and complaint handling” (evaluations by phone)
A5.8 Additional tables for scenario “Green tariffs and energy efficiency”
ANNEX 6 METHODOLOGY OF THE BEHAVIOURAL EXPERIMENT
A6.1 Profiles
A6.2 Experiment 1: Stay or switch
A6.3 Experiment 2: Bill comprehension
A6.4 Experiment 3: Marketing material comprehension
A6.5 Questions on bundling
ANNEX 7 TRANSPOSITION OF THE THIRD ENERGY PACKAGE INTO NATIONAL LEGISLATION
ANNEX 8 LIST OF RESPONDING STAKEHOLDERS (CONSULTATION)
ANNEX 9 LIST OF REFERENCES
Author (Corp. Body): Ipsos London Economics Deloitte consortium
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Amt für Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2016
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-9200-730-0 | EB-04-16-585-EN-N | 978-92-9200-729-4 | EB-04-16-586-EN-N | 978-92-9200-728-7 | EB-02-16-693-EN-N | 978-92-9200-726-3 | EB-02-16-692-EN-N | 978-92-9200-727-0 | EB-02-16-692-FR-N
Language: en | fr
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: electric power industryEUmarket researchmarket orientationconsumerconsumer protectioncompetition
Subject: European Community law in generalElectrical industry. Electric powerMarkets. Competition
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
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Title: Screening report Serbia : Chapter 8 – Competition Policy
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Directorate General for Neighbourhood and Enlargement Negotiations
Year: 2015
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: MD 205/15
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EUjoining of the European UnionSerbiacompetitioncompetition regulationscompetition rules
Subject: European Community external relationsEconomic conditions. Economic structure
Countries Scheme: Serbia
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Title: Behavioural Study on Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media : Final Report
Title (other): Behavioural Study on Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media : Executive Summary | Behavioural Study
on Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media : Annex 1.0 Literature review | Behavioural Study on
Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media : Annex 1.1.1 Country fiches | Behavioural Study on
Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media : Annex 1.1.2 OSM providers selection for Desk Research |
Behavioural Study on Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media : Annex 1.1.3 Provider fiches desktop |
Behavioural Study on Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media : Annex 1.1.4 Provider fiches
applications | Behavioural Study on Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media : Annex 1. 3.1 Desk
research report | Behavioural Study on Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media : Annex 1.3.2 Online
communities report | Behavioural Study on Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media : Annex 1. 4 .1
Stakeholder survey | Behavioural Study on Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media : Annex 1.5 Legal
assessment of problematic practices | Behavioural Study on Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media :
Annex 1. 6 Identification of remedies | Behavioural Study on Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media
: Annex 2.1 Behavioural experiments | Behavioural Study on Advertising and Marketing Practices in Online Social Media :
Annex 1.2 Business model identification
Abstract
The key objective of this multi-method, exploratory study was to investigate advertising and marketing practices in online social media (OSM) from the perspective of consumer behaviour and consumer protection. It aimed to identify and assess commercial practices in the context of OSM that could be potentially unfair or misleading for consumers. Furthermore, the study aimed to investigate the factors that contribute to their prevalence, and to identify and assess potential remedies to these problematic commercial practices.
Table of Contents
1 Introduction
1.1 Study objectives and report structure
1.2 Methodological approach
1.3 Definition of Online Social Media
2 Online Social Media in the EU
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Top Online Social Media providers in the EU
2.3 Differences across EU Member States
2.4 Key Online Social Media providers in focus
2.4.1 Facebook Inc.
2.4.2 YouTube
2.4.3 Twitter
2.4.4 Reddit
2.4.5 LinkedIn
2.4.6 Snapchat
2.5 Revenue streams of Online Social Media providers
2.6 Delivering marketing content to Online Social Media users
2.7 Commercial practices on Online Social Media
3. Disguised Advertising Practices
3.1 Introduction
3.1.1 Native advertising
3.1.2 Influencer marketing
3.1.3 Advertorials
3.2 Consumer issues
3.2.1 Evidence from the qualitative research
3.2.2 Evidence from the behavioural experiments
3.2.3 Conclusions
3.3 Legal assessment and remedies
3.3.1 Options for regulatory action
3.3.2 Options for enforcement action
3.3.3 Options for self-regulatory action
3.3.4 Other remedy options
4. Social Proof Practices
4.1 Introduction
4.1.1 Artificial boosting of social proof indicators
4.1.2 Extrapolation of social endorsements
4.1.3 Other practices linked to social proof
4.2 Consumer issues
4.2.1 Evidence from the qualitative research
4.2.2 Evidence from the behavioural experiments
4.2.2.1 Artificial boosting of social proof indicators
4.2.2.2 Extrapolation of social endorsements
4.3 Conclusions
| 4.4 Legal assessment and remedies
4.4.1 Options for regulatory action
4.4.2 Options for enforcement action
4.4.3 Options for self-regulatory action
5. Data Gathering and Targeting Practices
5.1 Introduction
5.1.1 User tracking
5.1.2 Audience targeting
5.1.3 Social media logins
5.2 Consumer issues
5.3 Conclusions
5.4 Legal assessment and remedies
5.4.1 Options for regulatory action
5.4.2 Practice-specific options for enforcement
5.4.3 Other remedy options
6 Other Problematic Practices
6.1 Description of specific practices identified
6.2 Consumer issues, legal assessment and conclusions
6.3 Legal assessment and remedies
6.3.1 Options for enforcement action
7 Conclusions
7.1 The OSM Landscape in the EU
7.2 Disguised advertising practices
7.2.1 Introduction and evidence of consumer issues
7.2.2 Options for regulatory action
7.2.3 Options for enforcement action
7.3 Social proof practices
7.3.1 Introduction and evidence of consumer issues
7.3.2 Options for regulatory action
7.3.3 Options for enforcement action
7.4 Data gathering practices
7.4.1 Introduction and evidence of consumer issues
7.4.2 Options for regulatory action
7.4.3 Options for enforcement action
7.5 General discussion of the current legal context
8 Appendix – Limitations and Future Research
9 List of Annexes
Author (Corp. Body): GfK Consortium
Contributer: Wageningen Universiteit en Researchcentrum | CentERdata | Europäische Kommission / Consumers, Health, Agriculture and Food Executive Agency | Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher | Rand Eu
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Amt für Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2018
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: Framework contract No. Chafea 2015 CP 01 | Project number: 2018.3823 | 978-92-9200-945-8 | EB-01-18-679-EN-N | Specific contract No. 2015 85 01 | Project number : 2018.3821 | 978-92-9200-932-8 | EB-02-18-896-EN-N | 978-92-9200-940-3 | EB-01-18-680-EN-N | 978-92-9200-937-3 | EB-01-18-681-EN-N | 978-92-9200-946-5 | EB-01-18-682-EN-N | 978-92-9200-941-0 | EB-01-18-683-EN-N | 978-92-9200-943-4 | 978-92-9200-944-1 | EB-01-18-687-EN-N | EB-01-18-686-EN-N | 978-92-9200-939-7 | EB-01-18-688-EN-N | 978-92-9200-933-5 | EB-01-18-690-EN-N | 978-92-9200-934-2 | EB-01-18-691-EN-N | 978-92-9200-942-7 | EB-01-18-692-EN-N | 978-92-9200-935-9 | EB-01-18-685-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EUmarketing instrumentmediaonline mediaconsumerconsumer protectionadvertising mediaadvertising
competition
Subject: European Community law in generalMediaMarkets. CompetitionConsumption. Consumer protection
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
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