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Title: Die Bekämpfung von Diskriminierung aufgrund von Schwangerschaft, Mutterschaft oder Elternschaft : Die Anwendung des
EU-Rechts und des nationalen Rechts in der Praxis in 33 europäischen Ländern ; Zusammenfassung
Title (other): La lutte contre la discrimination fondée sur la grossesse, la maternité et la parentalité : Mise en pratique du droit
de l'UE et du droit national dans 33 pays européens ; Résumé
Table of Contents
Mitglieder des Europäischen Netzwerks von Rechtsexpertinnen und Rechtsexperten auf demGebiet der Gleichstellung von Frauen und Männern
Teil I Zusammenfassung
Annick Masselot und Eugenia Caracciolo di Torella
1. Einleitung: Hintergrund und Ziel des Berichts
2. Der gesetzliche Kontext des Unionsrechts
2.1. Primäre Rechtsvorschriften
2.2. Sekundäre Rechtsvorschriften
2.3. Die Rechtsprechung des Europäischen Gerichtshofs
3. Zusammenfassung der Ergebnisse
3.1. Diskriminierung beim Zugang zu Beschäftigung – Einstellungsverfahren und Monitoring
3.2. Anpassung der Arbeitsbedingungen/Beurlaubung aus Gründen der Sicherheit und desGesundheitsschutzes
3.3. Vergütung
3.3.1. Sondervergütungen
3.3.2. Renten
3.4. Kündigung/Drängen zur Eigenkündigung – Auswirkungen der Wirtschaftskrise
3.4.1. Frauen in Führungspositionen
3.4.2. Befristete Beschäftigung und prekäre Formen der Beschäftigung
3.5. Das Recht, während der Schwangerschaft und des Mutterschaftsurlaubs nicht diskriminiertzu werden
3.5.1. Beruflicher Aufstieg
3.5.2. Jahresurlaub und Mutterschaftsurlaub
3.5.3. Rückkehr aus dem Mutterschaftsurlaub
3.6. Stillpausen
3.7. Selbständig Erwerbstätige
3.8. Die Rolle der Väter
3.8.1. Vaterschaftsurlaub
3.8.2. Elternurlaub
3.8.3. Die Rechte von Adoptiveltern
3.9. Die Güter- und Dienstleistungsrichtlinie
3.10. Zugang zu Information
3.11. Andere beteiligte Parteien
3.12. Durchsetzung und Wirksamkeit
4. Schlussfolgerungen
Author: Masselot, Annick ; 1047269422 | Caracciolo di Torella, Eugenia ; 140748563 | Burri, Susanne
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz | Europäisches Netzwerk von Rechtsexpertinnen und Rechtsexperten auf dem Gebiet der Gleichstellung von Frauen und Männern
Publisher: Amt für Amtliche Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2013
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-30903-8 | 978-92-79-30904-5 | DS-03-13-312-DE-N | DS-03-13-312-FR-N
Language: de | fr
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: discriminationparenthoodEUEuropean Lawmotherhoodpregnancy
Subject: European Community law in generalLabour law. Social lawEqual opportunities
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
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Title: Fighting Discrimination on the Grounds of Pregnancy, Maternity and Parenthood : The application of EU and national law
in practice in 33 European countries
Table of Contents
Members of the European Network of Legal Experts in the Field of Gender Equality
Part I
Executive Summary
Annick Masselot and Eugenia Caracciolo di Torella
1. Introduction: background and aim of the report
2. The legislative context in European Union law
2.1. Primary legislation
2.2. Secondary legislation
2.3. The case law of the European Court of Justice
3. Summary of the findings
3.1. Discrimination in the access to employment – recruitment process and monitoring
3.2. Adjustment of working conditions/leave for reasons connected to health and safety
3.3. Equal pay
3.3.1. Bonus
3.3.2. Pensions
3.4. Dismissal/pressure to resign – the impact of the economic crisis
3.4.1. Women in executive positions
3.4.2. Fixed-term employment and precarious forms of employment
3.5. The right not to be discriminated against during pregnancy and maternity leave
3.5.1. Promotions
3.5.2. Holiday and maternity leave
3.5.3. Return from maternity leave
3.6. Breastfeeding breaks
3.7. Self-employed workers
3.8. The role of fathers
3.8.1. Paternity leave
3.8.2. Parental leave
3.8.3. The rights of adoptive parents
3.9. The Goods and Services Directive
3.10. Access to information
3.11. Involvement of other parties
3.12. Enforcement and effectiveness
4. Conclusions
Part II
National Law: Reports from the Experts of the Member States, EEA Countries, Croatia, FYR of Macedonia and Turkey
AUSTRIA
BELGIUM
BULGARIA
CROATIA
CYPRUS
CZECH REPUBLIC
DENMARK
ESTONIA
FINLAND
FRANCE
GERMAN
GREECE
HUNGARY
ICELAND
IRELAND
ITALY
LATVIA
LIECHTENSTEIN
LITHUANIA
LUXEMBOURG
FYR of MACEDONIA
MALTA
THE NETHERLANDS
NORWAY
POLAND
PORTUGAL
ROMANIA
SLOVAKIA
SLOVENIA
SPAIN
SWEDEN
TURKEY
UNITED KINGOM
Annex I Questionnaire
Annex II Selected Bibliography
Annex III Tables
Author: Masselot, Annick ; 1047269422 | Caracciolo di Torella, Eugenia ; 140748563 | Burri, Susanne
Contributer: Europäisches Netzwerk von Rechtsexpertinnen und Rechtsexperten auf dem Gebiet der Gleichstellung von Frauen und Männern
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz
Year: 2013
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-27748-1 | DS-30-12-145-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: discriminationparenthoodEUEuropean Lawmotherhoodpregnancy
Subject: European Community law in generalLabour law. Social lawEqual opportunities
Countries Scheme: Europe. General ResourcesTurkey
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Title: Judicial cooperation in civil matters in the European Unoin : A guide for legal practitioners
Table of Contents
1. Introduction
1.1. ‘Judicial cooperation in civil matters’ — building bridges between the judicial systems in the EU
...
1.3. Special position of Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom
...
2. Jurisdiction, recognition and enforcement in civil and commercial matters — the Brussels I Regulation
2.1. General Introduction
...
3. The European procedures in civil and commercial matters
3.1. Overview
3.2. The European enforcement order for uncontested claims — EEO
3.3....
4. Insolvency
4.1. Background
4.2. The European Insolvency Regulation
5. Applicable Law
5.1. Applicable law — the problem
...
6. Parental Responsibility and Divorce
6.1. The ‘Brussels IIa’ Regulation
6.2. Applicable Law in Divorce — The ‘Rome III’ Regulation
7. Maintenance Obligations
7.1. Background to the Maintenance Regulation - the Brussels I Regulation and the Hague 2007 Maintenance Convention
...
8. Succession
8.1. Background and purposes of the Regulation on Succession
...
9. Service of documents
9.1. Background to the Service of documents Regulation
...
10. Taking of evidence
10.1. Background to the Taking of Evidence Regulation
...
11. Legal Aid
11.1. Background
...
12. Mediation
12.1. Settling out of court — alternative methods for resolving civil and commercial disputes in the European Union
...
13. Execution of Judgments
13.1. Background
13.2. European Account Preservation Order (EAPO)
...
14. Facilitating Judicial Cooperation and Access to Information in practice
14.1. The European Judicial Network in civil and commercial matters
...
List of Instruments referred to in this Guide
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz
Contributer: European Judicial Network in Civil and Commercial Matters
Publisher: Amt für Amtliche Veröffentlichungen, Luxemburg
Year: 2014
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-39699-1 | DS-01-14-725-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: applicationevidencedivorceparenthoodinheritance lawEUEuropean LawCommercial Law
information exchangejudiciarycooperationmediationlegal assistancepenal lawsupportcivil lawforeclosure
Subject: European Community law in generalCivil lawFamily lawCommercial law. Economic lawAdministrative law
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
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Title: Intersectional discrimination in EU gender equality and non-discrimination law : Including summaries in English, French
and German
Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
RÉSUMÉ
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG
1 INTRODUCTION: DEFINITIONS AND CONCEPTS
1.1 What is intersectional discrimination and how does it differ from other versions of ‘multiple discrimination’?
1.2 Why was the notion of intersectional discrimination developed? What problems does it address?
1.3 The structure of this report
2 INTERSECTIONALITY AND ITS CHALLENGES
2.1 The flaws in ‘single ground’ approaches
2.2 From intersectionality as identity to structural intersectionality
2.3 Stereotyping
2.4 From groups and grounds to relationships of power
2.5 A ‘capacious’ approach to grounds: International precedents
2.5.1 CEDAW: An intersectional approach to ‘women’
2.5.2 Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD): An intersectional approach to persons with disabilities
2.6 From formal to substantive equality
2.7 Intersectionality or context?
3 INTERSECTIONALITY IN CONTEXT
3.1 Gender in disadvantaged ethnic minorities
3.2 Intersectionality in Roma, Sinti and Traveller Communities
3.3 Age as a site of intersectional experience
3.4 Domestic workers
3.5 Sexual orientation and gender identity
3.6 Disability
4 MEMBER STATES
4.1 Explicit mention of multiple discrimination
4.1.1 Defining ‘multiple discrimination’
4.1.2 Multiple discrimination as pertaining to compensation
4.1.3 Multiple discrimination and positive duties and powers
4.1.4 Available grounds
4.2 No explicit mention in legislation
4.3 Case law
4.4 Equality bodies and Ombuds
4.4.1 Research and information
4.4.2 Decisions by equality bodies and ombuds
5 OBSTACLES AND OBFUSCATIONS: INTERSECTIONALITY AND EU LAW
5.1 Separate directives
5.2 Differing scope
5.3 Differing defences and exceptions
5.4 Exhaustive list of grounds
5.5 Comparator
6 ADDRESSING INTERSECTIONALITY IN EU LAW
6.1 Delineating groups at the intersection
6.2 Combining Grounds within the existing list
| 6.3 A capacious interpretation of grounds
47 INTERSECTIONALITY IN THE JURISPRUDENCE OF THE COURT OF JUSTICE
7.1 Age as an intersectional issue
7.2 Pregnancy
7.3 Parenting
7.4 Gender reassignment
7.5 Racial or ethnic origin
7.6 Disability
8 PROACTIVE MEASURES AND MAINSTREAMING
8.1 Why proactive measures?
8.2 Challenges of proactive measures
8.3 Legal basis for mainstreaming and proactive measures in EU law
8.4 Positive action and mainstreaming in EU policy: Some examples
CONCLUSION
Author: Fredman, Sandra
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher | European Network of Legal Experts in Gender Equality and Non Discrimination
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Amt für Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2016
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-57950-9 | DS-01-16-393-3A-N
Language: en | de | fr
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: old ageequal rights lawhandicapgipsydiscriminationethnic groupEUEuropean Law
womangenderfaithequality of treatmentlegal usagereligionsexualityWeltanschauung
Subject: European Community law in generalHuman rightsEqual opportunities
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
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Title: Legal implications of EU accession to the Istanbul Convention : Including summaries in English, French and German
Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
RÉSUMÉ
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG
1 INTRODUCTION: VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN IN INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW
1.1 The Istanbul Convention as a Human Rights Treaty
1.2 A Gender-Based Convention
1.3 The Istanbul Convention as a Criminal Law Treaty
1.4 Conclusion
2 THE ISTANBUL CONVENTION AND EU LAW
2.1 EU competence to accede to the Istanbul Convention
2.1.1 EU competence in the area of criminal law
2.1.2 EU accession to the UN CRPD
2.2 EU fundamental rights and violence against women
2.2.1 EU fundamental rights
2.2.2 EU law on promoting equality between men and women and on sex discrimination
2.2.3 Violence against women as a matter of EU policy
2.3 The Istanbul Convention chapter by chapter in comparison with EU law
2.3.1 The Preamble to the Istanbul Convention
2.3.2 Chapter I: Purposes, definitions, equality and non-discrimination, general obligations (Articles 1-6)
2.3.3 Chapter II: Integrated policies and data collection (Articles 7-11)
2.3.4 Chapter III: Prevention (Articles 12-17)
2.3.5 Chapter IV: Protection and Support (Articles 18-28)
2.3.6 Chapter V: Substantive law (Articles 29-48)
2.3.7 Chapter VI: Investigation, prosecution, procedural law and protective measures
2.3.8 Chapter VII: Migration and asylum (Articles 59-61)
2.3.9 Chapter VIII: International cooperation (Articles 62-65)
2.3.10 Chapter IX: Monitoring mechanism
2.3.11 Chapter X: Relationship with other international instruments (Article 71)
2.3.12
Chapter XI: Amendments to the Convention (Article 72)
2.3.13 Chapter XII: Final Clauses (Articles 73-81)
2.4 Conclusions: added value of accession
3 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL LAW
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Variations in policies on gender-based violence among EU Member States
| 3.3 Signature and ratification of the Istanbul Convention by EU Member States
3.4 Problematic areas in the context of ratification
3.5 Data collection and research (Article 11 of the Istanbul Convention)
3.6 Support services (Articles 18, 20, 22, 23, 24 and 25 of the Istanbul Convention)
3.6.1 General obligation to provide mechanisms for cooperation between agencies (Article 18(2) of the Istanbul Convention)
3.6.2 General support services (Article 20 Istanbul Convention)
3.6.3 Assistance in individual/collective complaints (Article 21 Istanbul Convention)
3.6.4 Specialist support services (Article 22 Istanbul Convention)
3.6.5 Shelters (Article 23)
3.6.6 Telephone helplines (Article 24)
3.6.7 Support for victims of sexual violence (Article 25)
3.6.8 Protection and support for child witnesses (Article 26)
3.7 Protection, investigation, prosecution
3.7.1 Emergency barring orders (Article 52)
3.7.2 Restraining or protection orders (Article 53)
3.7.3 Investigations and evidence (Article 54)
3.7.4 Ex parte and ex officio proceedings (Article 55)
3.7.5 Measures of protection (Article 56)
3.8 Migration and asylum
3.8.1 Residence status (Article 59.2)
3.9 Conclusions
Author: Nousiainen, Kevät | Chinkin, Christine
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher | European Network of Legal Experts in Gender Equality and Non Discrimination
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Amt für Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2016
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-54061-5 | DS-02-15-009-3A-N
Language: en | de | fr
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: discriminationEUEuropean LawCouncil of Europewomangenderviolenceequality of treatment
equalityinternational agreementhuman rightssexual harassment
Subject: European Community law in generalHuman rightsEqual opportunities
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
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Title: Links between migration and discrimination : A legal analysis of the situation in EU Member States ; Including summaries
in English, French and German
Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
RÉSUMÉ
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG
INTRODUCTION
1 SCOPE
1.1 Nationality
1.1.1 Definition of nationality
1.1.2 ‘Nationality’ and ‘national origin’
1.1.3 ‘Nationality’ and ‘national minorities’
1.1.4 Outstanding problems in the attribution of nationality in EU Member States
1.2 Race and ethnic origin
1.3 The relationship between nationality and race, ethnic origin, and religion
2 THE FRAMEWORK OF EU LAW WITH REGARD TO DISCRIMINATION ON THE GROUND OF NATIONALITY
2.1 The prohibition of discrimination on grounds of nationality within the scope of application of the EC Treaty
2.2 The progressive alignment of the status of third-country nationals with that of nationals of EU Member States
2.2.1 Introduction
2.2.2 The status of long-term residents
2.2.3 Other categories of third-country nationals
2.2.4 Conclusion
2.3 The impact of international agreements concluded by the EC/EU
2.4 The status of refugees and other persons in need of international protection
2.5 Conclusion
3 THE FRAMEWORK OF INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN HUMAN RIGHTS LAW WITH REGARD TO DISCRIMINATION ON GROUNDS OF NATIONALITY
3.1 United Nations Human Rights Treaties
3.1.1 The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
3.1.2 The Convention on the Rights of the Child
3.2 The Council of Europe: the European Convention on Human Rights and the European Social Charter
3.2.1 The European Convention on Human Rights
3.2.2 The European Social Charter
3.3 The situation of refugees and stateless persons
3.3.1 The Geneva Convention relating to the Status of Refugees
3.3.2 The Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons
3.4 Conclusion
4 PROTECTION FROM DISCRIMINATION ON GROUNDS OF NATIONALITY IN EU MEMBER STATES
4.1 Discrimination on grounds of nationality
4.1.1 Prohibition of nationality-based discrimination through international treaties or in constitutional provisions
| 4.1.2 Prohibition of nationality-based discrimination in ordinary legislation
4.2 Differences of treatment on grounds of nationality as indirect discrimination on grounds of race or ethnic origin, or religion or belief
4.3 Conclusion
Author: Schutter, Olivier de ; 122736451
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher | European Network of Legal Experts in Gender Equality and Non Discrimination
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Amt für Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2016
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-61905-2 | DS-04-16-770-3A-N
Language: en | de | fr
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: aliendiscriminationethnic originEUEuropean Lawrefugeelaw relating to refugeesGeneva Convention
legislationinternational agreementhuman rightsmigrationnationalitynation-stateracereligionstatelessness
Subject: European Community law in generalHuman rightsEqual opportunitiesRacial policy
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
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Title: Study on the service of documents : Comparative legal analysis of the relevant laws and practices of the Member States ;
Final report
Abstract
This study provides a comparative overview of how domestic service of judical and extra-judical documents is effected in all EU MSs. Areas covered span a broad range of questeions including: the identification of relevant actors (e.g.. initiator, executor and addressee of service), the analysis of available methods of service (personal, substituted, by post, through electonic channels, constructive), difficulties in finding the addressee, default of appearance and default judgments, remedies and cure of defective service. The study also includes some questions of cross-border or transnational service. The goal is to identify the areas in which the systems of service of the MSs converge or diverge, to identify where divergence may affect cross-border service of documents and to provide recommendations and suggestions in view of possible uniform answers for the European judical space.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
1. Abstract and executive summary
1.1 Abstract
1.2 Summary
1.2.1 Background and general findings
1.2.2 Recommendations
2. The project
2.1 Sources of information and data
2.2 The questionnaire and supporting infrastructure
2.3 Targets and dissemination
2.4 Collection of answers and coverage
2.5 Country summary
3. Comparative analysis
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Which types of documents are to be served and on which occasions
3.2.1 Definition of "documents instituting proceedings"
3.2.2 Service of judgements
3.2.3 Service and enforcement proceedings
3.2.4 Service of extra-judical documents
3.3 Who requests service to be performed [the initiator)
3.4 By whom service is performed (the executor]
3.5 Who is to be served
3.5.1 Service on legal persons
3.5.2 Lawyers and authorised representatives
3.5.3. Foreign person or company
3.5.4 Servide to minors, incapacitated addressees; service on deceased persons
3.5.5 Service on multiple addressees
3.6. Available methods of service of documents - General comments
3.6.1 Available, effective and preferred methods of service
3.6.2 Special methods
3.6.3 Possibility to agree on methods or places of service
3.6.4 Certification/written record of delivery
3.6.5 What is delivered to the addressee
3.6.6 Hierachy between methods of service
3.6.7 Confidentiality
3.7 Personal service and substituted service - Place of service
3.7.1 Personal service
3.7.2 Place of service
3.7.2.1 Service on natural persons
3.7.2.2 Service on legal persons
3.7.3 Substituted Service
3.7.3.1 Service on substituting recipient
3.7.3.2 Other ways substituting personal service
3.7.3.3 General remarks on the substituted service methods
| 3.7.4 Service when the address is correct but nobody is persent to accept it
3.8 Service by post
3.8.1 Providers, rules, envelopes, forms
3.8.2 Duty to search, addressee absent, deemed service
3.8.3 Certificate of service and effectiveness
3.9 Service through electronic channels
3.9.1 E-service through specific digital platforms
3.9.1.1 Austria
3.9.1.2 Czech Republic
3.9.1.3 Denmark
3.9.1.4 Estonia
3.9.1.5 France
3.9.1.6 Germany
3.9.1.7 Italy
3.9.1.8 Lithuania
3.9.1.9 the Netherlands
3.9.1.10 Poland
3.9.1.11 Portugal
3.9.1.12 Spain
3.9.2 E-service through ordinary e-mails
3.9.3 Future possible use of digital technology for service
3.9.4 Interoperability, diversity and geographical limitations
3.10 Address or whereabouts unknown
3.10.1 Who searches of investigates for the address
3.10.2 Whereabouts of the address unknown
3.11 Refusal to accept service and legal consequences
3.11.1 Justified refusal
3.11.2 Unjustified refusal
3.12 Constructive ("fictitious" od "notional") service
3.13 Default of the addressee and default judgements
3.13.1 Austria
3.13.2 Belgium
3.13.3 Bulgaria
3.13.4 Croatia
3.13.5 Cyprus
3.13.6 Czech Republic
3.13.7 Denmark
3.13.8 Estonia
3.13.9 Finland
3.13.10 France
3.13.11 Germany
3.13.12 Greece
3.13.13 Hungary
3.13.14 Ireland
3.13.15 Italy
3.13.16 Latvia
3.13.17 Lithuania
3.13.18 Luxembourg
3.13.19 Malta
3.13.20 The Netherlands
3.13.21 Poland
3.13.22 Portugal
3.13.23 Romania
3.13.24 Slovakia
3.13.25 Slovenia
3.13.26 Spain
3.13.27 Sweden
3.13.28 Scotland
3.13.29 England
3.14. Remedies against "defective" service of documents
3.15 Validity of service and cure of defective service
3.16 Frauds during service and sanctions
| 3.17 Costs of service
3.17.1 Average costs
3.17.2 Predictability
3.17.3 Who is charged with paying the costs of service
3.18 Time
3.18.1 Average duration and predictability
3.18.2 At what time service is deemed performed
3.18.3 On what date service is deemed performed
3.18.4 Lis pendens
3.18.5 Delays
3.19 Transnational service
3.19.1 Existence of domestic provisions implementing the Service Regulation
3.19.2 Direct service by foreign executors
3.19.3 Knowledge of EU rules on service of documents, language and other issues experienced
3.19.4 Translations and certifications
3.20 Service on states
4. Conclusions
4.1 Recommendations and suggestions
4.2 Conclusive remarks
5. List of annexes
6.Acknowledgements
Author: Simoni, Alessandro | Pailli, Giacomo
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher | Universita? degli Studi di Firenze | DMI | Uppsala universitet
Year: 2016
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: No JUST/2014/JCOO/PR/CIVI/0049
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: servicedocumente-mailEUEuropean Lawpostal servicelegal usagejurisdiction
judgment or sentence
Subject: European Community law in generalAudiovisual industry. Post and telecommunications
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
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Title: Study on the Temporary Protection Directive : Final report
Title (other): Study on the Temporary Protection Directive : Executive Summary
Abstract
This Final report is the final deliverable of the Study on the Temporary Protection Directive (2001/55/EC), an assignment undertaken by ICF Consulting Services Limited (“ICF”), on behalf of DG Migration and Home Affairs (“the Commission”). The Final Report contains the purpose, scope, design and conduct of the study, presents the analysis carried out and presents conclusions and recommendations. This Final Report is structured as follows: Chapter 2 describes the methodology and work undertaken by the Study Team;Chapter 3 provides an overview of the Temporary Protection mechanism,reviewing its historical context, the Commission’s proposal and negotiations and an explanation of the workings of the mechanism and application to date; Chapter 4 presents strengths and weaknesses of the Temporary Protection Directive TPD);Chapter 5 examines pressures on the EU in the period 2001-2014 (these events are further examined in the case study descriptions in Annex 3) and summarises the reasons for non-implementation of the TPD;Chapter 6 identifies possible changes to the TPD and assessesthese policy options.Chapter 7 includes a comparison between the preferred policy option for revising the TPD and the recently proposed provisional measures and permanent crisis mechanism.[Author vide copyright]
Table of Contents
1 Introduction
2 Methodology
2.1 Objectives of the Study
2.2 Outline of the methodology
2.3 Work undertaken by the Study Team and challenges encountered
3 Background to the Temporary Protection Directive
3.1 What preceded the adoption of the Temporary Protection Directive
3.1.1 National forms of temporary protection preceding the adoption of the TPD
3.1.2 Historical context
3.1.3 Commission proposals and negotiations
3.2 The temporary protection mechanism
3.2.1 Objectives
3.2.2 The mechanism
3.2.3 Status of transposition
3.2.4 Application to date
4 Strengths and weaknesses of the TPD
4.1 Introduction
4.2 A broad definition of mass influx, resulting in flexibility but also obstacles in its application
4.2.1 “Large numbers”
4.2.2 “Arrival (spontaneous or aided) in the community”
4.2.3 Who come from a “specific country or geographical area”
4.2.4 Who are “unable to return to their country of origin”
4.2.5 If there is a “risk” that the asylum system will be unable to process the influx without “adverse effects”
4.3 Cumbersome and lengthy activation procedure influenced by political factors
4.3.1 Are the right actors involved?
4.3.2 The number of steps are high
4.3.3 The content of some of the steps are unclear
4.4 Solidarity principle, based on dual volunteerism
4.4.1 The principle of solidarity
4.4.2 The organisation of redistribution, as laid down in the TPD
4.5 A fair and adequate level of protection of rights, but potentially unattractive to Member States
4.6 In the absence of activation, theobjective to harmonise TP is undermined
5 Pressures on the EU in the period 2001 2014 and reasons for non-implementation
5.1 Pressure on Member States in the period 2001-2014
5.1.1 Pressure due to a significant high and/or sudden increase
5.1.2 Pressure following a gradual increase
5.1.3 Pressure due to strong fluctuations
5.2 Management of the situation
| 5.2.1 Development of alternative measures to deal with situations of pressure
5.2.2 What measures have Member States made use of both at national and EU level in response to the situations of pressure?
5.2.3 Different approaches in handling situations of pressure
5.3 Could the TPD have provided added-value?
5.4 Reasons for the non-implementation of the TPD
6 Policy options and their assessment
6.1 Criteria for the triggering of the mechanism
6.1.1 Reflection on concepts and indicators for measurement
6.1.2 Criteria for the triggering of the mechanism
6.2 Procedure to be followed for triggering the mechanism and its duration
6.3 Rights to be granted to persons being granted temporary protection and obligations of Member States
6.4 The type of solidarity mechanism
7 Continued relevance of the TPD and an amended TPD in comparison with the new proposals for (emergency and permanent crisis) relocation mechanisms
Annexes
Annex 1 National forms of temporary protection
Annex 2 Case Studies
Belgium 2008-2012
Bulgaria 2013-2014
Cyprus
France 2007-2013
Germany 2013-2014
Greece 2006-2008
Hungary 2013-2015
Italy 2011
Malta 2011
Netherlands
Poland
Sweden 2013-2014
Annex 3 Statistics
Annex 4 Hypothetical/future scenarios of mass influx in the EU
| 1 Executive summary – Study on the Temporary Protection Directive
1.1 Aims of the study
1.2 Background and context
1.3 Strengths and weaknesses
1.4 Pressures on the EU in the period 2001 -2014 and the reasons for non-implementation
1.5 Policy options and their assessment
1.6 Continued relevance of the TPD and an amended TPD in comparison with the new (emergency and proposed permanent crisis) relocation mechanisms
Author (Corp. Body): ICF Consulting Services Limited
Contributer: Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Migration und Inneres
Publisher: Europäische Kommission / Amt für Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2016
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-60666-3 | DR-01-16-702-EN-N | 978-92-79-61581-8 | DR-02-16-925-EN-N
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: policy on asylumEUEuropean Lawrefugeehuman rightsmigrationmigration policyprotection
directiveexpellee
Subject: European Community law in generalHuman rightsMigration
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
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