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Title: Migrants, minorities and education : Documenting discrimination and integration in 15 member states of the European
Union
Abstract
Foreword This study presents a unique collection of material on the situation of migrants and minorities in the European Union in the field of education. Covering the years 2001 to 2003, the study provides a comparative analysis of the state of integration, educational achievements and existing discrimination of minority pupils and students. The main focus of this study is on different forms of disadvantages and unequal treatment experienced by migrants and minorities in school, university and vocational education across the EU Member States. Besides this, an overview of good practices shows each country's efforts to improve the educational situation of these groups, e.g. by carrying out language programmes or offering inter-cultural training. The study finishes with selected recommendations to European Union institutions and Member States. School attainment and the quality of education have a decisive impact on the pupils' future employment opportunities. Unfortunately, evidence gathered in this study shows that despite numerous endeavours to improve the educational accomplishments of migrants and minorities, for the most part, their achievements lag behind that of the majority groups. However, in several countries young migrants of the second generation tend to perform better than their peers who arrived more recently. I hope that this report will raise public and official awareness on the issue of discrimination in the educational sector and will contribute to the creation of equal opportunities for all children and young people living in the EU. The data for this report was compiled for the EUMC by its RAXEN National Focal Points in each of the (at the time) 15 Member States. The EUMC then invited an independent researcher to bring this material together in the form of the current report. I would like to thank the author of the report Dr. Mikael Luciak and all the National Focal Points of the EUMC RAXEN information network for their effort and the comprehensive work they produced. Beate
Table of Contents
Table of bContents
Foreword III
1. Executive summary V
Part One 1
2. Introduction 1
2.1. Objectives and Organization of the Study 1
2.2. Process of Conducting the Comparative Study 2
3. Theoretical, Methodological, and Terminological Considerations 3
3.1. Theoretical and Methodological Framework 3
3.2. Official Terms and Categories 4
Part Two 9
4. Enrolment of Migrants and Minorities in Education 9
4.1. Comparison of Education Enrolment Figures (General) 9
4.2. Enrolment Trends 10
4.3. Comparison of Education Enrolment Figures in Primary Education 13
4.3.1. Nationality and Ethnic Minority Group Size (aggregate data) 13
4.3.2. Largest Nationality and Ethnic Minority Groups 14
4.4. Comparison of Education Enrolment Figures in Secondary Education 19
4.5. Comparison of Enrolment Figures in Special Education 28
4.6. Comparison of University and Higher Education Enrolment Figures 34
5. Achievement and Underachievement 43
5.1. Educational Achievement of Migrants and Ethnic Minorities 43
5.2. Reasons for Academic Underachievement of Migrants and Ethnic Minorities 53
5.2.1. Factors relating to Minority Pupils, their Parents, and the Cultural Group 54
5.2.2. Factors of Institutional Discrimination 54
5.2.3. Factors related to Teachers or Peers 55
5.2.4. Other Factors 56
6. The Educational Situation of National Autochthonous and Indigenous Minorities 57
VII Migrants, minorities and education - European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
7. Language Programmes, Intercultural Education, and "Good Practices" 71
7.1. Native Language Programmes 71
7.2. Second Language Programmes 79 7.3. Intercultural, Multicultural, and Anti-racist Curricula 87
7.4. Good Practice Examples for Reducing Racism, Xenophobia and Anti-Semitism and for Fostering Diversity 95
8. Discrimination and Anti-Discrimination 103
8.1. Legislation and Monitoring of Ethnic Discrimination, Racism, and Inequalities 103
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2005
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 92-9500-818-9
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: educationethnic originmigrantminority
Subject: Social environment. Social behaviour
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
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Title: Anti-discrimination legislation in EU Member States - Austria
Title (other): a comparison of national anti-discrimination legislation on the grounds of racial or ethnic origin, religion of belief
with the Council directives
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2002
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: equal rights lawethnic originEU Treatyequality of treatmentAustrialegislative provisionreligioncomparison
Subject: Human rights
Countries Scheme: Austria. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Anti-discrimination legislation in EU Member States - Belgium
Title (other): a comparison of national anti-discrimination legislation on the grounds of racial or ethnic origin, religion of belief
with the Council directives
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: Migration Policy Group
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2002
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: equal rights lawBelgiumethnic originEU Treatyequality of treatmentlegislative provisionreligioncomparison
Subject: Human rights
Countries Scheme: Belgium
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Anti-discrimination legislation in EU Member States - Germany
Title (other): a comparison of national anti-discrimination legislation on the grounds of racial or ethnic origin, religion of belief
with the Council directives | Gesetzgebung über Antidiskriminierung in den Mitgliedsstaaten der EU - Deutschland
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: Migration Policy Group
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2002
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: equal rights lawethnic originEU member stateEU Treatyequality of treatmentlegislative provisionreligioncomparison
Subject: Human rights
Countries Scheme: Germany. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Anti-discrimination legislation in EU Member States - Denmark
Title (other): a comparison of national anti-discrimination legislation on the grounds of racial or ethnic origin, religion of belief
with the Council directives
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2002
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: equal rights lawDenmarkethnic originEU Treatyequality of treatmentlegislative provisionreligioncomparison
Subject: Human rights
Countries Scheme: Denmark
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Anti-discrimination legislation in EU Member States - Finland
Title (other): a comparison of national anti-discrimination legislation on the grounds of racial or ethnic origin, religion of belief
with the Council directives
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: Migration Policy Group
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2002
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: equal rights lawethnic originEU TreatyFinlandequality of treatmentlegislative provisionreligioncomparison
Subject: Human rights
Countries Scheme: Finland
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Anti-discrimination legislation in EU Member States - France
Title (other): a comparison of national anti-discrimination legislation on the grounds of racial or ethnic origin, religion of belief
with the Council directives
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: Migration Policy Group
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2002
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: equal rights lawethnic originEU TreatyFranceequality of treatmentlegislative provisionreligioncomparison
Subject: Human rights
Countries Scheme: France
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Anti-discrimination legislation in EU Member States - Greece
Title (other): a comparison of national anti-discrimination legislation on the grounds of racial or ethnic origin, religion of belief
with the Council directives
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2002
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: equal rights lawethnic originEU Treatyequality of treatmentGreecelegislative provisionreligioncomparison
Subject: Human rights
Countries Scheme: Greece
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Anti-discrimination legislation in EU Member States -Ireland
Title (other): a comparison of national anti-discrimination legislation on the grounds of racial or ethnic origin, religion of belief
with the Council directives
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: Migration Policy Group
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2002
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: equal rights lawethnic originEU Treatyequality of treatmentIrelandlegislative provisionreligioncomparison
Subject: Human rights
Countries Scheme: Ireland
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Anti-discrimination legislation in EU Member States -Italy
Title (other): a comparison of national anti-discrimination legislation on the grounds of racial or ethnic origin, religion of belief
with the Council directives
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: Migration Policy Group
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2002
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: equal rights lawethnic originEU Treatyequality of treatmentItalylegislative provisionreligioncomparison
Subject: Human rights
Countries Scheme: Italy
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Anti-discrimination legislation in EU Member States - Luxembourg
Title (other): a comparison of national anti-discrimination legislation on the grounds of racial or ethnic origin, religion of belief
with the Council directives
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: Migration Policy Group
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2002
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: equal rights lawethnic originEU Treatyequality of treatmentLuxembourglegislative provisionreligioncomparison
Subject: Human rights
Countries Scheme: Luxembourg
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Anti-discrimination legislation in EU Member States - The Netherlands
Title (other): a comparison of national anti-discrimination legislation on the grounds of racial or ethnic origin, religion of belief
with the Council directives
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: Migration Policy Group
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2002
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: equal rights lawethnic originEU Treatyequality of treatmentNetherlandslegislative provisionreligioncomparison
Subject: Human rights
Countries Scheme: Netherlands
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Anti-discrimination legislation in EU Member States - Portugal
Title (other): a comparison of national anti-discrimination legislation on the grounds of racial or ethnic origin, religion of belief
with the Council directives
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: Migration Policy Group
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2002
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: equal rights lawethnic originEU Treatyequality of treatmentPortugallegislative provisionreligioncomparison
Subject: Human rights
Countries Scheme: Portugal
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Anti-discrimination legislation in EU Member States - Spain
Title (other): a comparison of national anti-discrimination legislation on the grounds of racial or ethnic origin, religion of belief
with the Council directives
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: Migration Policy Group
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2002
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: equal rights lawethnic originEU Treatyequality of treatmentlegislative provisionreligionSpaincomparison
Subject: Human rights
Countries Scheme: Spain
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Anti-discrimination legislation in EU Member States -Sweden
Title (other): a comparison of national anti-discrimination legislation on the grounds of racial or ethnic origin, religion of belief
with the Council directives
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Contributer: Migration Policy Group
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2002
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: equal rights lawethnic originEU Treatyequality of treatmentlegislative provisionreligionSwedencomparison
Subject: Human rights
Countries Scheme: Sweden
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Anti-discrimination legislation in EU Member States - The United Kingdom
Title (other): a comparison of national anti-discrimination legislation on the grounds of racial or ethnic origin, religion of belief
with the Council directives
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2002
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: equal rights lawethnic originEU Treatyequality of treatmentGreat Britainlegislative provisionreligioncomparison
Subject: Human rights
Countries Scheme: United Kingdom
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
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Title: Die Richtlinie zur Gleichbehandlung ohne Unterschied der Rasse: Anwendung und Herausforderungen
Title (other): The Racial Equality Directive: application and challenges
Author (Corp. Body): European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights
Year: 2012
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: ethnic originEuropeequality of treatmentdirective
Subject: Equal opportunities
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document. (Quelle / Source: http//:ec.europa.eu)
Title: Country report Non-discrimination : Greece 2015 ; Including summaries in English, French and German
Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
RÉSUMÉ
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG
INTRODUCTION
1 GENERAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK
2 THE DEFINITION OF DISCRIMINATION
...
3 PERSONAL AND MATERIAL SCOPE
...
4 EXCEPTIONS
...
5 POSITIVE ACTION (Article 5 Directive 2000/43, Article 7 Directive 2000/78)
...
6 REMEDIES AND ENFORCEMENT
...
7 BODIES FOR THE PROMOTION OF EQUAL TREATMENT (Article 13 Directive 2000/43)
8 IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES
...
9 COORDINATION AT NATIONAL LEVEL
10 CURRENT BEST PRACTICES
11 SENSITIVE OR CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES...
12 LATEST DEVELOPMENTS
ANNEX 1: TABLE OF KEY NATIONAL ANTI-DISCRIMINATION LEGISLATION
ANNEX 2: TABLE OF INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS
Author: Theodoridis, Athanasios
Contributer: European Network of Legal Experts in Gender Equality and Non Discrimination, Utrecht | Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher
Publisher: Amt für Amtliche Veröffentlichungen, Luxemburg
Year: 2015
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-53022-7 | DS-02-15-907-3A-N
Language: en | de | fr
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: old personequal rights lawlaborhandicapemploymentequal opportunitydiscriminationethnic origin
EUGreecehomosexualityIslamminorityMuslimracelegal usagereligious communitysexuality
Subject: European Community law in generalEqual opportunitiesRacial policyReligionsEmployment and unemployment
Countries Scheme: Greece
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Country report Non-discrimination : Austria 2015 ; Including summaries in English, French and German
Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
RÉSUMÉ
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG
INTRODUCTION
1 GENERAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK
2 THE DEFINITION OF DISCRIMINATION
...
3 PERSONAL AND MATERIAL SCOPE
...
4 EXCEPTIONS
...
5 POSITIVE ACTION (Article 5 Directive 2000/43, Article 7 Directive 2000/78)
...
6 REMEDIES AND ENFORCEMENT
...
7 BODIES FOR THE PROMOTION OF EQUAL TREATMENT (Article 13 Directive 2000/43)
8 IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES
...
9 COORDINATION AT NATIONAL LEVEL
10 CURRENT BEST PRACTICES
11 SENSITIVE OR CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES...
12 LATEST DEVELOPMENTS
ANNEX 1: TABLE OF KEY NATIONAL ANTI-DISCRIMINATION LEGISLATION
ANNEX 2: TABLE OF INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS
Author: Schindlauer, Dieter
Contributer: European Network of Legal Experts in Gender Equality and Non Discrimination, Utrecht | Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher
Publisher: Amt für Amtliche Veröffentlichungen, Luxemburg
Year: 2015
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-53031-9 | DS-04-15-846-3A-N
Language: en | de | fr
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: old personequal rights lawlaborhandicapemploymentequal opportunitydiscriminationethnic origin
EUhomosexualityIslamminorityMuslimAustriaracelegal usagereligious communitysexuality
Subject: European Community law in generalEqual opportunitiesRacial policyReligionsEmployment and unemployment
Countries Scheme: Austria. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: Country report Non-discrimination : Belgium 2015 ; Including summaries in English, French and German
Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
RÉSUMÉ
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG
INTRODUCTION
1 GENERAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK
2 THE DEFINITION OF DISCRIMINATION
...
3 PERSONAL AND MATERIAL SCOPE
...
4 EXCEPTIONS
...
5 POSITIVE ACTION (Article 5 Directive 2000/43, Article 7 Directive 2000/78)
...
6 REMEDIES AND ENFORCEMENT
...
7 BODIES FOR THE PROMOTION OF EQUAL TREATMENT (Article 13 Directive 2000/43)
8 IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES
...
9 COORDINATION AT NATIONAL LEVEL
10 CURRENT BEST PRACTICES
11 SENSITIVE OR CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES...
12 LATEST DEVELOPMENTS
ANNEX 1: TABLE OF KEY NATIONAL ANTI-DISCRIMINATION LEGISLATION
ANNEX 2: TABLE OF INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS
Author: Bribosia, Emmanuelle ; 144002655 | Rorive, Isabelle ; 144002841
Contributer: European Network of Legal Experts in Gender Equality and Non Discrimination, Utrecht | Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Justiz und Verbraucher
Publisher: Amt für Amtliche Veröffentlichungen, Luxemburg
Year: 2015
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-53030-2 | DS-04-15-845-3A-N
Language: en | de | fr
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: old personequal rights lawlaborhandicapBelgiumemploymentequal opportunitydiscrimination
ethnic originEUhomosexualityIslamminorityMuslimracelegal usagereligious communitysexuality
Subject: European Community law in generalEqual opportunitiesRacial policyReligionsEmployment and unemployment
Countries Scheme: Belgium
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
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