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Title: Enlargement
Title (other): a prozess rather than a point in time
Abstract
The publication is the result of a major new research project of the International Organisation for Migration (IOM). The project was managed by IOM Vienna and funded by the European Commission's Directorate for Employment and Social Affairs. It analyses migration trends in six EU accession countries: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. It examines the effects of EU enlargement on migratory routes and destinations, as well as social changes in new member states. It provides answers to the questions of how new migration trends will affect society in these countries, how countries characterised by emigration in the 1990s will cope with rising immigration and the challenge of integrating migrants. It also deals with the issue of how governments are planning to cope and what is expected after May 2004. [Urheber s. Copyright]
Author: Gros, Daniel | Crum, Ben | Turmann, Anna
Series Title: CEPS policy brief ; 51
Contributer: Centre for European Policy Studies
Year: 2004
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: immigrationEUjoining of the European Unioneastwards expansion
Subject: European Communities. European UnionEmployment and unemploymentAspects of migration
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Centre for European Policy Studies (http://shop.ceps.be/)
Title: Migration trends in selected applicant countries : Volume III Poland
Title (other): Dilemmas of a sending and receiving country
Abstract
Emigration, both politically and economically determined, has always been a phenomenon firmly present in the history as well as in the consciousness of the Poles. Throughout Polish history migration flows were initiated either by political factors (dissidents fleeing political repressions at the hands of the occupants or the communist regime) or economic ones (peasants of the overpopulated countryside leaving 'in search of bread'). The result of more than 100 years of intensive emigration was the development of a Polish diaspora spread throughout the world (Walaszek 2001); the building-up of migration networks facilitating foreign migration and the generation from international migration of an easily available means of accumulating capital and resolving short-term economic difficulties.Notwithstanding the scale and significance assumed by migration, accessible statistical data do not allow for an accurate estimation of the flows to and from Poland. Measurement of foreign migration is based first and foremost on registration and deregistration, rather than on people's real movements. Data from various sources are not compatible, and frequently even conflict with one another (Sakson 2002). This in part due to methodological limitations (with information on migration being collected ex ante, which is to say that a person who intends to emigrate declares both that intention and the planned length of stay), but also to some extent reflects economic considerations (other forms of measurement like the British International Passenger Survey are very costly), as well as civilisational changes shaping new forms of international mobility (i.e. circular or irregular migration), that fall outside the definitions and methods of measurement employed hitherto. [Urheber s. Copyright]
Author: Korys, Izabela
Publisher: International Organization for Migration
Year: 2004
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 92-9068-183-7
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: immigrationEUeastwards expansionPoland
Subject: European Communities. European UnionEmployment and unemploymentAspects of migration
Countries Scheme: Europe. General ResourcesPoland
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: International Organization for Migration (http://www.iom.int/)
Title: Migration trends in selected applicant countries : Volume IV Romania
Title (other): More 'out' than 'in' at the crossroads between Europe and the Balkans
Abstract
Migration is a rather new phenomenon in Romania after 1990. The difference between in-flows and out-flows is significantly in favour of out-migrants in terms of volumes and experiences. The explanation is quite straightforward, when one thinks of the economic potential of Romania. The labour market is not very attractive and the business environment is under continuous change. That is why there is a common perception, supported by data and information coming from authorities, that Romania has been mostly a transit country and not a destination country. However, there is a risk to ignore future trends and not to be prepared for the expected moment when more immigrants from Middle East, Africa and Former Soviet Union republics will decide to settle on the Romanian territory and not just heading to more developed economies. This moment is likely to happen close to 2007, the Romanian accession year to the EU.In terms of out-flows probably labour migration is the most important form of Romanians moving to a foreign country. Student mobility represents less than one-fifth of the total volume of migrant workers after 1990 and emigration for good has been constantly declining since 1995. The push economic factors are the most important in generating migration flows, but relative deprivation at the level of small communities is the engine to perpetuate migration flows. 2001 is a crucial year for labour migration, after EU lifting visa requirements for Romanian citizens. Although this decision was followed by drastic control measures and sanctions from the Romanian authorities, the 3 months period for travelling in any EU country either created opportunities for migrants to find a legal job or stimulated an inventive mechanism of 3 months job replacement (one job - several workers). [Urheber s. Copyright]
Author: Lazaroiu, Sebastian
Publisher: International Organization for Migration
Year: 2004
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 92-9068-184-5
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: immigrationEUeastwards expansionRomania
Subject: European Communities. European UnionEmployment and unemploymentAspects of migration
Countries Scheme: Europe. General ResourcesRomania
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: International Organization for Migration (http://www.iom.int/)
Title: Migration Trends in Selected Applicant Countries
Title (other): Volume I Bulgaria ; The social impact of seasonal migration
Abstract
The report follows the main guidelines of the comparative research outline designed by IOM-Vienna: brief introduction to the problem from the point of view of introducing historical background, the statistical development over the past five years (1997 to 2001), the legal and administrative provisions with regard to migration and migration management, trying to find answers to the main question of the study: How does migration affect the local society in Bulgaria at this point of time?The report analyses both out-migration and in-migration trends, but in the Bulgarian case what seems clear is that out-migration exceeds in-migration, thus emigration rather than immigration has bigger impact on the Bulgarian society. The public discourse is dominated by concerns about brain-drain, the economic benefits from Bulgarian migrants working abroad temporarily, the possibilities for exporting skilled labour legally, and the harm inflicted The report is based on secondary analysis of relevant literature (Appendix 1); normative documents, regulating migration; statistical and border police data about migration (Appendix 2); sociological surveys on potential migration and on the economic impact of migration; interviews with representatives of state institutions and NGOs dealing with migration, as well as with immigrants and emigrants (Appendix 3). by returned asylum-seekers on Bulgaria's image. Immigrants are not particularly visible yet, and concerns about their number, protection of their rights, xenophobia or their integration come rarely to the fore. That is why, in searching for the social impact of migration on the Bulgarian society, the Bulgarian team will pay more attention to out-migration than to in-migration. [Urheber s. Copyright]
Author: Guentcheva, Rossitza | Kabakchieva, Petya | Kolarski, Plamen
Publisher: International Organization for Migration
Year: 2003
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 92-9068-181-0
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: BulgariaimmigrationEUeastwards expansion
Subject: European Communities. European UnionEconomic and social developmentAspects of migration
Countries Scheme: Europe. General ResourcesBulgaria
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: International Organization for Migration (http://www.iom.int/)
Title: Migration Trends in Selected Applicant Countries: Volume VI Slovenia
Title (other): The perspective of a Country on the 'Schengen Periphery'
Abstract
The key event in the country's contemporary history is the milestone year of 1991 when Slovenia gained independence. After this period, the entire process of creating migration policy started, although it cannot be said that Slovenia had no previous experience with migration outflow and inflow. On the contrary, Slovenia was the territory of immigration from other parts of former Yugoslavia. At the same time, many Slovenes emigrated to the Western countries as "guest workers". However, it is a questionable viewpoint that the accession/applicant countries to the EU (or generally, the transitional countries of Eastern Europe) are by definition countries that only recently face immigration. It seems that a more diversified analysis is needed in order to include different forms of immigration, although not always international, but nevertheless important for particular regions. The fact remains that immigration from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia from the past have influenced nowadays' policing, especially in the field of integration of immigrants into a "new society". To summarise migration trends after WW2, the following picture could be presented: immediately after the war the migration balance was negative, the majority of Slovene emigrants crossed the border undocumented and reasons were predominantly political. In mid 1950s the main motivation for migration became economic. In next two decades Slovenia turned from a territory of emigration to a territory of immigration. Immigration of the population from the former Yugoslav Republics is the most important feature of the period before the year 1991. Most immigrants came to so-called industrial half moon, the area of main industrial centres in Slovenia, including the capital city of Ljubljana. The second prominent territories of immigration were municipalities bordering on Croatia. [Urheber s. Copyright]
Author: Zavratnik Zimic, Simona
Publisher: International Organization for Migration
Year: 2003
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 92-9068-186-1
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: immigrationEUeastwards expansionSlovenia
Subject: European Communities. European UnionEconomic and social developmentAspects of migration
Countries Scheme: Europe. General ResourcesSlovenia
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: International Organization for Migration (http://www.iom.int/)
Title: Migration Trends in Selected Applicant Countries: Volume V Slovak Republic
Title (other): An Acceleration of Challenges for Society
Abstract
The research project presented here deals with migration issues of six countries in Central and Eastern Europe, including the Slovak Republic. During the past 2-3 years especially, Slovakia has been undergoing a significant transformation in this area and a multitude of questions related to this change are evidently coming to the foreground. The country has still several attributes typical of a transit country in respect of immigration, though even some signs suggest that it could soon become a favourable target country for migrants. Moreover, sudden inflows of legal and irregular migrants in the very last years have been manifested to an unexpected extent carrying a great acceleration of challenges with it. These concern not only the numbers of migrants proper, but are reflected essentially in the phenomena, processes, mechanisms and trends accompanying migration per se and influencing the life of autochthonous Slovak society in legal, economic, social, cultural, political, demographic, and other dimensions. In the report on Slovakia, following the introductory remarks, firstly a historical overview of migration in the country is outlined as a basis for the following evaluation. Within it, emigration from Slovakia before WW2 is briefly described with its main stages, destination countries, and estimated numbers of migrants. Migration development in the country after WW2 is discussed more in detail. The migration shifts and their reasons in Slovakia soon after the war are illustrated, then developments under 40 years of communism are analysed. The exchange of persons with foreign countries in this period including illegal emigration with its consequences as well as migration with the Czech Republic as a typical pattern of socio-spatial movements of inhabitants within former Czechoslovakia are here assessed. [Urheber s. Copyright]
Author: Divinský, Boris
Publisher: International Organization for Migration
Year: 2004
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 92-9068-185-3
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: immigrationEUeastwards expansionSlovakia
Subject: European Communities. European UnionSociety and social groupsAspects of migration
Countries Scheme: Europe. General ResourcesSlovak Republic
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: International Organization for Migration (http://www.iom.int/)
Title: Gründung von Partnerschaften im Hinblick auf den Beitritt : Multilingual abridged edition
Title (other): Creating partnerships for Pre-Accession | Création de partenariats en vue de la Préadhision (fr)
Abstract
Hintergrund des Workshops war die geplante Erweiterung der Europäischen Union um 10 mittel- und osteuropäische Länder. Diese Länder müssen sich mit wichtigen Fragen bezüglich der Landwirtschaft und der ländlichen Entwicklung befassen. [...] Dementsprechend wurde im Juni 1999 ein Workshop mit dem Titel "Gründung von Partnerschaften im Hinblick auf den Beitritt" veranstaltet. Sein Ziel war es, die ländliche Entwicklung in den Vorbeitritts-Ländern durch die Förderung einer aktiven Partnerschaft und einen Erfahrungs- und Wissensaustausch unter den vielen beteiligten Akteuren zu unterstützen. [Europäisches Parlament]
Series Title:European Parliament - Working Papers ; AGRI 132/AM
Author (Corp. Body): HushållningsSällskapens Förbund, Stockholm
Publisher: Europäisches Parlament / Generaldirektion Wissenschaft
Year: 1999
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: PE 168.643/AM
Language: de
Ressource: Einzelne Arbeitspapiere, Preprints
Keyword: EU enlargementrural developmenteastwards expansion
Subject: International relationsAgricultural policy. Agricultural development
Countries Scheme: Eastern Europe. General ResourcesEastern Central Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäisches Parlament (http://www.europarl.europa.eu/)
Title: Regional Cooperation in the Black Sea Area: Analysis of the Opportunities to Foster Synergies in the Region
Abstract
Following the Eastern EU enlargement and debates on the Constitutional Treaty, the Black Sea region has received increasing political, public and scholarly attention. This study examines the prospects for and the forms of economic , sectoral/thematic and political cooperation in the area from the perspective of the EU as well as of the local actors. The macroeconomic situation in the region is analysed as a major factor for commercial and economic cooperation. The complex networks of existing trade agreements is set in the context of national trade policies and the common commercial policy of the EU. Special attention is given to EU support for trade liberalization and regional economic integration around the Black Sea. Three specific facets of regional cooperation are considered transportation and infrastructure development, cooperation among local and regional authorities and the initiative of creating a Black Sea Euro-region, and the modalities of inter-parliamentary cooperation, with a particular emphasis on relations between the European Parliament and PABSEC. The institutional and political formats of regional cooperation are studied in an evolutionary perspective. The EUs gradual opening to multilateralism in the Black Sea area has faced the dilemma of choosing between two models of EU involvement in the region political umbrella and EU-BSEC inter-institutional relationship. The strengths and weaknesses of several home-grown formats of regional cooperation BSEC and GUAM are analysed as to their capacity of acting as the EUs main interlocutor. The paper examines also the degree of applicability in the case of Black Sea of previous experience in regional cooperation in the EUs periphery the Northern Dimension.[Krassimir Nikolov]
Author: Nikolov, Krassimir
Series Title:European Parliament - Study
Publisher: Europäische Union / Europäisches Parlament
Year: 2007
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: PE 385.547
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: Foreign policyBlack Seaeastwards expansioneconomic cooperation
Subject: International cooperationForeign policyEuropean Community external relations
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäisches Parlament (http://www.europarl.europa.eu/)
Title: Understanding Enlargement
Title (other): The European Union's Enlargement Policy
Table of Contents
From 6 to 27 Member States
Who can join?
Who decides
The enlargement process at work: meeting the requirements
Helping candidates preparing for membership
The future
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Erweiterung
Publisher: Amt für Amtliche Veröffentlichungen
Year: 2007
ISBN / ISSN / Kat.Nr: 978-92-79-06636-8 | NI-78-07-352-EN-C
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: EU expansioneastwards expansion
Subject: History of the European Communities. European idea
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://ec.europa.eu/)
Title: National Strategies for Minority Schooling
Title (other): A comparative analysis
Author (Corp. Body): European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Publisher: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
Year: 2005
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: education systemequal opportunityethnic groupEuropeeastwards expansion
Subject: Educational systems in general
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Fundamental Rights Agency (http://fra.europa.eu)
Title: The European Union's Development Policy
Title (other): The EU's current agenda for Development Policy and Enlargement
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Entwicklung
Year: 2003
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: development aidEU expansioneastwards expansion
Subject: Development aid. Aid programmes and aid organizations
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://europa.eu.int/)
Title: The consequences of enlargement for development policy
Title (other): Final Report. The consequences of enlaggement for development policy. Volume I.
Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1. NEW MEMBER STATES: THE ONGOING TRANSITION FROM AID RECIPIENTS TO DONORS
1.1. THE DEVELOPMENT POLICY FRAMEWORK
1.2. LEGISLATION ON DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION
1.3. INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
1.4. IMPLEMENTATION
1.5. FINANCIAL ASPECTS
1.6. CIVIL SOCIETY AND NGOS
1.6.1. Public Support for Development Cooperation and Humanitarian Aid
1.6.2. Relations with NGOs
1.7. EXISTING CAPACITY BUILDING PROGRAMMES
2. THE EU DEVELOPMENT POLICY: RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS OF NEW MEMBER STATES
2.1. PRIMARY LEGISLATION
2.2. SECONDARY LEGISLATION
2.3. ACQUIS COTONOU
2.4. SOFT LAW
2.5. OVERSEAS COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES AND TRADE IN BANANAS
2.6. TRADE
2.7. INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS WITH INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS
2.7.1. Framework Agreements between the EC and International Organisations
2.7.2. International Agreements the EU takes part in
2.8. CASE LAW
3. THE POSSIBLE IMPACT OF ENLARGEMENT ON DEVELOPMENT POLICY
3.1. FINANCIAL IMPACT ON DEVELOPMENT CO-OPERATION
3.1.1. The overall financial framework
3.1.2. The Initial Period (2004-2006)
3.1.3. The period 2007-2013 (10th EDF and new Financial Perspective)
3.2. IMPACT ON EC OPERATIONS AND GEOGRAPHIC FOCUS
3.3. IMPACT ON EU PRESENCE IN INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS
3.4. IMPACT ON EU DECISION MAKING
4. RECOMMENDATIONS
4.1. OVERALL STRATEGY
4.2. SPECIFIC ACTIONS: POLICY FORMULATION
4.3. SPECIFIC ACTIONS: CAPACITY BUILDING
4.4. SPECIFIC ACTIONS: A ROADMAP TO MONTERREY
ANNEX 2 – STRUCTURE OF THE EU LEGISLATION AND THE DEVELOPMENT ACQUIS
ANNEX 3 –POLITICAL STATEMENTS AND ACTION PLANS ADOPTED AT UN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES SINCE 1992
ANNEX 4 – COUNTRY PROFILES
ANNEX 5 – BIBLIOGRAPHY
Author (Corp. Body): Europäische Kommission / Generaldirektion Entwicklung
Year: 2003
Language: en
Ressource: Einzelne Berichte, Studien
Keyword: development aidEU expansioneastwards expansion
Subject: Development aid. Aid programmes and aid organizations
Countries Scheme: Europe. General Resources
Online Ressource: vorübergehend nicht erreichbar!
Bitte beachten Sie die urheberrechtlichen Bedingungen der Dokumentenbenutzung / Please observe the copyright when accessing the document | Quelle / Source: Europäische Kommission (http://europa.eu.int/)
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